Shimo Goryo-jinja Shrine (下御霊神社)

Shimo Goryo-jinja Shrine is a Shinto shrine located in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City. It was ranked as a fusha (prefectural shrine) under the old shrine classification system. The name Shimo Goryo-jinja Shrine (lit. Lower Goryo-jinja Shrine) corresponds to that of Kami Goryo-jinja Shrine (Upper Goryo-jinja Shrine).

Enshrined deities
The following eight deities, known as the 'Hassho Goryo' (lit. eight enshrined avenging spirits) are enshrined.

KIBI no Shoryo (KIBI no Makibi)
Emperor Sudo (son of Emperor Kanmu, Imperial Prince Sawara)
Imperial Prince Iyo (son of Emperor Kanmu)
Fujiwara Daifujin (the mother of Imperial Prince Iyo, FUJIWARA no Yoshiko)
FUJIWARA no Maetsukimi (FUJIWARA no Hirotsugu)
Tachibana no Maetsukimi (TACHIBANA no Hayanari)
Bundayu (FUNYA no Miyatamaro)
Hono Ikazuchi tenjin
Ameno nakabashira kojin and the Emperor Reigen are enshrined within the aidono building.

These deities (excluding KIBI no Shoryo) are all the vengeful spirits of those who were killed in political conflicts, and this shrine was founded to comfort their anger.

Subsidiary shrines
Inari-sha Shrine
Kitano-sha Shrine
Ise-sha Shrine (Naiku and Geku) (constructed between 1818 and 1830)
Suika-sha Shrine and Sarutahiko-sha Shrine (Enshrines Suika Shinto proponent Ansai YAMAZAKI and was formally combined with Sarutahiko-sha Shrine)

During the reign of Emperor Kanmu, plague was rife throughout Japan. The disease was believed to be a curse caused by vengeful spirits and a Goryo-e (ceremony to appease vengeful spirits) was held at Shinsen-en Temple in Heian-kyo City on June 14, 863. This Goryo-e ceremony is believed to have been the founding of the temple and Kami Goryo-jinja Shrine. Since ancient times, the shrine has been revered as enshrining a guardian deity of Kyoto Imperial Palace. The spirit of the Emperor Reigen was enshrined alongside the existing deities between 1716 and 1736.

The shrine is said to have been named Shimo Goryo-jinja Shrine (lit. Lower Goryo-jinja Shrine) due to its original location to the south of Kami Goryo-jinja Shrine (Upper Goryo-jinja Shrine). It was later relocated to Shinmachi Demizu before being moved again to its current site in 1590 due to Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI's redesign of the capital.

Tsuyoshi SHIGA, a researcher of shrines listed in the Engishiki Jinmyocho (register of shrines and deities in the book of regulations of the Engi era), believes Shimo Goryo-jinja Shrine to be Izumoinoheno-jinja Shrine (classified as a Taisha) listed in the Engishiki Jinmyocho but its history is unclear and there is no mention of Izumoinoheno-jinja Shrine in the history records held at Shimo Goryo-jinja Shrine.

The annual Goryo-sai Festival was held on the 20th day of the 8th month (old calendar) until the Meiji period but is now held on the 3rd Sunday in May.

This festival is held in cooperation with local elementary schools.

[Original Japanese]