Azukaridokoro (預所)

"Azukaridokoro" (also Azukesho, Azugasso, Azukarisho) was a deputy position the medieval Shoen manor, and integrally controlled it with the official appointment of honjo (proprietor or guarantor of a manor).

In a legal code book, "Satamirensho" published in the Kamakura Period, it is defined as 'Azukaridokoro is the local clerical manager in the manor entrusted by honjo.'
Since around the 12th century, it emerged to take the place of traditional sento (a person who does practical business in the management of Shoen estates), azukari (government post), kengyo (one of shokans, officers governing Shoen manor), and jotsukai (a lower-ranked officer who governs Shoen manor).

However, records and references show that the position and scope of Azukaridokoro varied widely. Azukaridokoro in general, appointed by honjo, took charge of management of the Shoen manor, directing the lower-ranked shokans (officers governing the manor). To Azukaridokoro in the manor, an officer dispatched from honjo, an influential local person, Kaihatsu ryoshu (local noble who actually developed the land), or the benefactor of the manor (or his descendent or a related person) were often appointed. However, on the other hand, in case of a Shoen manor where existed a multi-layered structure in control such as the honke (patron) and the ryoke (proprietor), the ryoke was called Azukaridokoro. In addition, there were cases in which the honke appointed its own Keishi (household superintendent) or other retainer to Azukaridokori, so that he could be supported by the manor instead of receiving his salary. When a ryoke or a Keishi became Azukaridokoro, in many cases, he continued living in Kyoto, and day to day management was carried out by a trusted deputy. The former type of local Azukaridokoro is called "Zaichi Azukaridokoro" (Azukaridokoro in the duty station), and the latter type of Azukaridokoro living in Kyoto is called "Zaikyo Azukaridokoro". Within the multi-layered structure of Shoen ryoshu, in some cases, both Zaichi Azukaridokoro and Zaikyo Azukaridokoro coexisted, and in such cases, the former was called Chushi, and the latter was called Joshi, after the Geshi (local keeper) which was a low-ranked shokan. At the late Heian Period, an increasing number of samurais began to take positions as Azukaridokoro, although it was originally a clerical post, and some continued to advance to acquire the post of Jito (manager and lord of manor) or Zaichi ryoshu (local lord). In the Kamakura bakufu, there was a regulation called 'Bokan joshi,' which prohibited gokenin (immediate vassals of the shogunate) to be appointed to Joshi (Zaikyo Azukaridokoro) or high-ranked shokan (governor of the manor) with similar authority. This regulation was formulated by the Kamakura bakufu, because the bakufu was worried about rivalries between the gokenin serving it, if one were appointed to Joshi while another was appointed to the post of Jito, which often corresponded to the lower ranks such as Geshi and Chushi, in order to control a Shoen manor.

[Original Japanese]