Kyoto Daikan (京都代官)

Kyoto daikan was a post of an officer which was set up in Kyoto in the Edo period under the control of Kyoto shoshidai (the chief administrator of the imperial capital and of imperial lands), mainly administering the finance of the Edo bakufu and the Imperial court in Kinai (the five kuni in the immediate vicinity of Kyoto), such as administrating tenryo (bakufu-owned land), fief of the imperial family, and fief of the nobilities. It was called Kyoto gundai in the beginning.

In 1635, Toyonao GOMI was appointed as daikan bugyo (magistrate) in Kyoto and set up an encampment called Kyoto gundai in the west side of the Nijo-jo Castle, which is allegedly the origin of the Kyoto daikan. At the outset, it dealt with lawsuits in the Kinai together with Fushimi bugyo and had jurisdiction over Kyoto city with the shoshidai, eventually the job became busy. For this reason, duties of the daikan bugyo were divided between Toyomune GOMI, who was a son of Toyonao and succeeded his father's duty after his death, and Masasada KOIDE who had been in the post of Fushimi bugyo in 1660, and Toyomune GOMI took over the daikan's duty. This is allegedly how Kyoto daikan launched, although there has been another view that it started in 1664 when Shigetatsu SUZUKI, who had succeeded Toyomune GOMI, was appointed as the daikan. Four years later, duties including that of shoshidai were reorganized, thus the Kyoto machibugyo was inaugurated as a new system. The position was succeeded by Toyomune GOMI again, however, after his death in 1680, it was succeeded by Masanori KOBORI, and since then by the Kobori clan hereditarily.

When Masanori was in the position, a fief of 600 koku and a 1000 hyo executive allowance, and status of Tsutsuji no mazume were set for the Kyoto daikan. As it administered the duties of Nijo-jo Castle and the Court, it had many subordinates numbering about 20 to 30 normally and 60 or more at the most.

Its position and duties are:
administration of the Court fief, court nobles, and deputies to collect tax, and so on,

maintenance and repair of Nijo-jo Castle,

provision of executive allowance for temples and shrines in Kyoto,

administration of important points in river traffic in Yamashiro Province at Katsura, Kizucho, Uji City, Kamo, and Yodo, and

administration of the tenryo in Yamashiro, Settsu, Kawachi, and Tanba Provinces. Also, as a result of negotiation with the Osaka machibugyo about management, it held an additional post of Osaka funate kaku (a class of profession in Osaka whose role was to be in charge of chartered ship management and maritime inspections) for a period.

[Original Japanese]