Naishoryo (Bureau of Skilled Artisans) (内匠寮)

Naishoryo is one of the ranks outside the Ritsuryo system belonging to the Nakatsukasa-sho (Ministry of Central Affairs) under the Ritsuryo system. Japanese readings include "takumiryo" and "uchitakumi no tsukasa."

History and official duties

Naishoryo was newly established in 728 under Emperor Shomu. The official duty is the manufacture of furnishing goods and ritual equipment for the Emperor's family. Furthermore, the scale was expanded by placing imonono tsukasa (casting bureau) of the Okura-sho under the Ritsuryo system of the Okura-sho in 774, and by merging the gakoshi (painting bureau) of the Nakatsukasa-sho and the nuribeshi (lacquering bureau) of the Okura-sho in 808. Naishoryo functioned as the leader of the government craft center during the early Heian period until mid Heian period.

Naishoryo was considered to be an imitation of the Shofugen which was the government craft center in the Tang Dynasty, and it had another name; 'Shofu.'
This bureau is characterized by operations conducted by various artisans (Zoshiki tsukurite - various craftspeople) instead of using the system of government officials of the ancient Japanese Ritsuryo system. This can be said to be the origin of Japanese industry.

After the mid Heian period, official duties were gradually replaced by posts such as Tsukumodokoro (the post responsible for procuring furnishing goods for the Imperial Court), Mokkoryo (Bureau of Carpentry), and Shurishiki (Office of Palace Repairs), and gradually became a mere facade.


Kashira (director): Corresponds to Jugoinoge (Lower Grade Junior Fifth Rank); one person
Jo (assistant director): Corresponds to Shorokuinoge (Lower Grade Senior Sixth Rank); one person
Daijo (senior secretary): Corresponds to Shoshichiinoge (Lower Grade Senior Seventh Rank); one person Shojo (junior secretary): Corresponds to Jushichiinojo (Upper Grade Junior Seventh Rank); two persons
Daizoku (senior clerk): Corresponds to Juhachiinojo (Upper Grade Junior Eighth Rank); one person Shozoku (junior clerk): Corresponds to Juhachiinoge (Lower Grade Junior Eighth Rank); two persons

Shisho (recorder)
Ryosho (the post for giving orders to Shibe - low ranking bureaucrats): newly established

Shibe (low ranking bureaucrats)
Jikicho (general workers)
Kushicho (general workers)

Zoshiki tsukurite; (Chojoko (full-time bureaucratic worker), Banjoko (part-time bureaucratic worker))

[Original Japanese]