Nenyo (one of the positions in the Ins or retired emperors) office (年預)

The Nenyo was an official position during the middle ages in Japan.

Nenyo (Inshi)

The Nenyo is an official position in the Inshi (officials of the In no cho, or Retired Emperor's Office)
The Nenyo supervised the In no cho (Retired Emperor's Office) and took the responsibility for running administrative affairs in the In. The Zuryo (head of the provincial governors) of the fourth or fifth Court Ranks worked as a Betto (chief administrator), which was commonly called "Innonenyo" or "Nenyo Betto." In later years, some stewards or regents served concurrently as Nenyo. Prominent Nenyo includes FUJIWARA no Mototaka under Emperor Shirakawa, FUJIWARA no Tadataka under Emperor Toba, FUJIWARA no Toshimori under Emperor Goshirakawa, and TAIRA no Tadamori under Bifukumon-in. A historical book described that the position of Nenyo was also provided later for government officials such as the Okura-sho (Ministry of the Treasury) and Oiryo (Bureau of Palace Kitchens under the Ministry of the Imperial Household) as well as for the Keishi (household superintendent) of the Sekkan families (Sekkanke).

Nenyo (Temples)

The Nenyo is an official position in temples such as the Todai-ji Temple, To-ji Temple, and the Kongobu-ji Temple. The Nenyo organized meetings and consultations of the Daishu (Buddhist monks residing in the zendo) by arranging and chairing the meetings and recording, storing and putting into practice what was decided in the meetings. They were elected from the Daishu by drawing lots or held the position by rotation once a year. Enjo-ji Temple set up the Nenyo position in 889, which was the oldest historical record of the position.

This practice of assigning Nenyo in temples had an influence on samurai warriors in later years. The influence of the Nenyo system and its election system is said to have been found in the systems of the Kamakura bakufu such as the Hyojoshu (a member of Council of State) and Hikitsukeshu (Coadjustor of the High Court) as well as monthly shift or duty system.

[Original Japanese]