Shogun-kokenshoku is one of the three key posts in Edo shogunate created in the final years of the Edo period, along with Seiji sosaishoku (president of political affairs) and Kyoto shugoshoku (military governor of Kyoto).
Because the 14th Seiitaishogun Iemochi TOKUGAWA assumed office in 1858 still in his youth, Yoshiyori TAYASU from gosankyo (three privileged branches of the Tokugawa family) was chosen to take this role in August of the same year, in the name of the will of former Shogun Iesada TOKUGAWA and the precedent of Masayuki HOSHINA filling this role for the 4th Shogun Ietsuna TOKUGAWA and Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA for the 11th Shogun Ienari TOKUGAWA (both shogun were assumed office in youth). However, it was a formal post created by the Tairo (chief minister) Naosuke II, without any real power or official recognition.
However, in May 1862, demand from the Imperial Court to take punitive action against the followers of Ii inside the Edo shogunate led to the resignation of Yoshiyori TAYASU appointed to the post by Ii, on grounds that Iemochi had reached adulthood. This was followed by an Imperial decree ordering Yoshinobu HITOTSUBASHI be appointed Shogun-kokenshoku, as an official position in the Edo shogunate. In response, Yoshinobu was appointed to the post, now newly made official, in July of the same year. The post was abolished in March 1864 when Yoshinobu was moved to the post of Kinri Goshuei Sotoku (post to guard Kinri Palace).