Danjiri-bayashi (music performed in festivals) (地車囃子)
Danjiri-bayashi is festival music which is played to accompany the drawing danjiri (decorative portable shrines; floats used in festivals), and in the region centered on the northern part of Osaka City which does not possess danjiri for some reasons it refers to the 'hetari' style which is festival music played by itself on a stage, turret and also a boat for funatogyo (a ritual to place divine spirits on boat, to cross a river). Hetari' means to sit and play a drum (on a stage and turret), as a counter-expression to the musical performance during the drawing danjiri. Also, after the drawing danjiri, a performance and dedication in 'hetari' style often occurs on a stage and turret. Although it is generally difficult to differentiate between 'danjiri' and the music 'danriji-bayashi,' 'danjiri-bayashi' in 'hetari' style (which refers to the performance without the drawing of danjiri) is also generally popular as a representative music at events such as the Tenjin Festival of Osaka Tenman-gu Shrine. The high-level accomplishment of danjiri-bayashi as a musical suite is the biggest difference between 'danjiri-bayashi' in 'hetari' style and the one which is played during the drawing of danjiri, the latter not yet capable of becoming a suite. So, the danjiri-bayashi has been played at a promotion for the Olympics, which was wasteful spending of taxpayer's money, and the opening ceremony of a professional bowling tournament as well as weddings and funerals; moreover, there are some preservation societies and forums called Ko and Ren that carry out guerrilla concerts.
Depending on the preservation societies, Ko and Ren, it is referred to as 'Danjiri-bayashi' (だんじり囃子), 'Danjiri-bayashi' (だんぢり囃子), 'Sesshu Danjiri-bayashi (摂州だんじり囃子), 'Sesshu danjiri-bayashi' (摂州地車囃子), 'Tenma bayashi' (天満囃子), 'Nagae bayashi' (長柄囃子), 'Kawachi Danjiri-bayashi' (河内地車囃子) or 'Osaka Danjiri-bayashi' (大阪地車囃子), etc. For the performance, oyadaiko (a kind of large Japanese drum), 雄鉦 and 雌鉦 (a kind of gong) (also called nichogane) and kodaiko (small drum) (also called tokoten) are used. Also, fifes are played in hayashi (the festival music) in Izumi and 'hikiuta' (music for drawing) is inserted into the hayashi in Minamikawachi area. Also, according to "Settsu-meisho-zue" (a book introducing beauty spots in Settsu) (in 1798) which depicted a danjiri drawing at Ikasuri-jinja Shrine during the late Edo period, shamisen (a three-stringed Japanese banjo) was played for hayashi in the two storey danjiri. However, as hayashi played in 'hetari' style was becoming established as music, fifes and shamisen were apparently used less and less because they were overcome by the heavy sound of the gongs. In addition, there is a piece of music called 'Danjiri' in yosebayashi (rakugo theater music) which is played with shamisen, oodo (flat drum) and shime-daiko drum (this debayashi [stage music at a traditional comic variety theater] was used in some rakugo records of Nikaku SHOFUKUTEI [the third]).
The danjiri-bayashi which are performed at danjiri festivals at Izumi, such as the Kishiwada Danjiri Matsuri Festival, feature young people in their late teens and early 20's in leading roles. However, it is not unique to Senshu region that hayashi takes an important role in organizing the movements of danjiri, such as winding, running, stopping and turning, as well as the movement of the major attraction Yarimawashi (the performance to make a danjiri float turn at right angles). Setting yarimawashi aside, musical performance that express the movements of danjiri can be seen in Kawachi region too, and even at Settsu (within Osaka City) which possesses no danjiri. Each part of Osaka seems to have inherited its fair share of tradition.
Many people believe that the origin of danjiri-bayashi was a 'theme song' during the construction of Osaka-jo Castle at the end of 16th century. It is thought that this theory is probably true; it was mentioned in the popular TV program "Rekishi Kaido" (The main road of history) by Osaka-Asahi Broadcasting too.
In the early modern age, however, the theme song was played together with 'danjiri.'
In the meantime, a raccoon dog called Kichibei DANJIRI is enshrined in a corner of the grounds of Enoki-jinja Shrine (Horikawa Ebisu-jinja Shrine: also called Horikawa no Ebisu) in the Kita Ward, Osaka City (hence it is also called Danjiri-inari Shrine). In olden times, this raccoon dog called Kichibei-san apparently tricked neighborhood residents by mimicking the sounds of danjiri-bayashi. Some people say that this folklore is an evidence for the claim that the music called danjiri-bayashi was known amongst the general public prior to the modern age.
Even though danjiri did not draw at the Tenjin Festival from the end of the Edo period to the Showa period, the music called danjiri-bayashi was inherited as a symbol of the festivals in Osaka. This is thought to be because danjiri-bayashi attracted people not only to the festival at Osaka Tenman-gu Shrine, but also to each local Hayashi Hono (devotional music performed in festivals) held in the surrounding areas to where their portable shrines used to return, and even in the north, south, east and west areas in relation to the Shrine: Imafuku and Gamo, Fukushima, Hirano and Nagae.
Dancing is a feature
It is thought to be after the Second World War that Danjiri-bayashi spread amongst the general public widely as a form of music independent of 'danjiri.'
This was linked with the development of a mass media. It might have been to compete with the drawing danjiri in areas such as Senshu, (according to the old people who had gotten involved with Hayashi) that they were developing the uniqueness of hayashi (music), but 'once we danced flamboyantly, it attracted attention'; the mass media, such as newspapers and magazines first, then soon TV, played up the dance of danjiri-bayashi. In a novel "Doro no kawa" (Muddy River) (written by Teru MIYAMOTO) set in Osaka in 1956, the performance of danjiri-bayashi in 'hetari' style at Fukushima-tenmangu Shrine is depicted. There is a scene featuring danjiri-bayashi in 'hetari' style in the movie based on that novel, directed by Kohei OGURI, which was edited to focus on the dance. Also at the Tenjin Festival of Osaka Tenman-gu Shrine, which is often hyped by the media, it was dedicated in the form of 'hetari' - setting 'danjiri' with three roofs on the stage, that used to be immobile and was just a decoration until the early 1990s - and the main performance of the danjiri-bayashi was the dance, which is still the same as now. Thus, as the dance was played up by the visual media, the music of danjiri-bayashi was apparently gaining in popularity at the same time.
At any rate, preservation societies, Ko and Ren that perform danjiri-bayashi only in the form of 'hetari' were on the increase for various reasons, such as that they sometimes didn't have enough money to repair their danjiri in the high economic growth. For example, Ohatsu-tenjin Shrine (Tsuyunoten-jinja Shrine), Hattori-tenjingu Shrine, Nagae-hachimangu Shrine and Minami Nagae-hachimangu Shrine are those cases. And in regions which don't have 'danjiri' and value the style of devotion that consists of festival music and dance only, one of the key moments was apparently when the danjiri-bayashi Hono on the eve of festival of the Osaka Expo in 1970 was broadcast by Osaka Mainichi Broadcasting.
Featured showy drumstick-work
After that, the performance of danjiri-bayashi has got popular gradually. In March 1979, Sesshu danjiri-bayashi of Nagae-hachimangu Shrine was dedicated, in addition to the dedication of Kishiwada Danjiri Matsuri Festival at an event at Osaka-jo Castle which was hosted by the shrine agency of Osaka Prefecture. This was the moment that the shrine agency of Osaka Prefecture accepted danjiri-bayashi as an independent form of music. It was a landmark dedication for danjiri-bayashi; based on this, preservation societies and forums called Ko and Ren emerged which changed the performance styles of hayashi (the typical example is Hirano Danjiri-bayashi hozonkai [Preservation Association of music performed in festivals of Hirano] which dedicates their hayashi in the style of 'hetari' at Kumata-jinja Shrine in Hirano Ward, Osaka City). And in late 1980, a training session of danjiri-bayashi was held, organized by Youth Groups committee of Osaka City. Such activities by Youth Groups of Osaka City played a part in the spread of danjiri-bayashi.
However, it was the showy drumstick-work of oyadaiko that fascinated many young people who participated in the training session above. The performance of oyadaiko was a feature because it is the element of danjiri-bayashi most open to improvisation. Also, in the early 1990s, as camcorders started to spread amongst families, there was an increase in preservation societies, Ko and Ren, recording the showy performance of the oyadaiko played by Nagae-hachimangu Shrine, Minami Nagae-hachimangu Shrine and Hirano Danjiri-bayashi hozonkai which took in the splendor of the performance of 'Kita' (a part of the Kita Ward in Osaka City). The showy performance of danjiri-bayashi was spread at a stroke.
Many preservation societies, Ko and Ren, which took in showy performances afresh, do possess 'danjiri,' and some older people deplore such adoptions, saying 'it spoils the overall harmony to include performances from areas which don't possess danjiri.'
Also in areas which don't possess danjiri and perform danijri-bayashi without them, some older people complain 'the performance with the sho (a kind of gong) and kodaiko and the dance are neglected.'
In fact, someone who films danjiri-bayashi for broadcast and who watches it perceive the dance as the main attraction of danjiri-bayashi; on the other hand, the people who perform it think that the showy drumstick-work is the feature of danjiri-bayashi.
Although the name of each piece of music differs depending on the preservation society, Ko and Ren, the words and terms below are based on the brochure which was produced in about 1990 at the training session of danjiri-bayashi hosted by Youth Groups committee in Osaka City. The hayashi in 'Kita' and 'Higashi' area should be understandable with these notations even though their real names may be different.
Three part composition
If it is divided into parts like western music, danjiri-bayashi consist of three movements of Hana, Naka and Dame. Hana comes from 'shoppana' (the very beginning). Naka comes form 'mannaka' (the middle). And Dame comes from 'dame wo osu' (to make doubly sure). The performance lasts for nearly 20 minutes if it is occurs in three movements; however, the great majority of performances are cut down into two movements.
Noriko ASANO, who is a full-time lecturer at Osaka Chiyoda Junior College, distinguishes between music which is played 'consciously' and music which can be played 'unconsciously' at "Tenjinsai Naniwa no Hibiki" (Tenjin Festival - the sound of Naniwa), Tokyo Sogensha Co., Ltd.; the conscious music is the part of 'Uta' (song). Before the 'Uta' part, there are parts called 'Ichiriki' and 'Niriki' which can be played unconsciously. After the Uta, there is a kind of song part called 'Shangiri' where can be also played unconsciously. One movement is made up with these parts.
However, such performances, in which only 'Hana' is played, are nothing special and there is little chance of them being performed in 'hetari.'
The first and second movement is combined with 'Magarito' and 'Shin Abura' (sometimes Abura). The third movement is combined in the same way. There are many preservation societies, Ko and Ren, that consider a drummer of danjiri-bayashi as fully-fledged if he/she masters this 'magarito' part.
Some regions call the part of 'magarito' as 'tsunagi.'
From Ichiriki to Niriki
It is 'Ichiriki' if you hear a sound like "chiki chin chiki chin chiki chikkon kon" and "jiki jin jiki jin jiki jikkon kon." Quite a lot of regions call this part 'dochu' (literally, along the way). Oyadaiko players start off by hitting only the drum skin, and then hit the drum skin and the wood frame at the same time from the middle. They sometimes hit the tack part of the drum.
It is 'Niriki' if you hear the sound like "kon kon kon chiki chikkon kon, kon kon chiki chiki chikkon kon" and "kon kon kon jiki jikkon kon, kon kon jiki jiki jikkon kon."
Many regions call this part 'Mitsu.'
In danjiri-bayashi, music called 'Uta' is inserted once every movement (between the Niriki and the Shangiri).
There are many preservation societies, Ko and Ren that call it 'Kayaku' and 'Monku.'
Also, the each name of 'Uta' varies considerably depending on the area. In the 'Higashi' area, there are some Uta called Tenman, Itachi (Japanese mink), Sakura, Jikijin, Mikasa, Nagae kamenobori, Gamokame (tortoise), Imafuku no kame (tortoise of Imafuku), etc. In the 'Kita' area, there are some Uta called Tenman (the same as the one of 'Higashi'), Higashi, Hangane mawashi (spinning; the same as Itachi of 'Higashi), Yoshino, Ura, Kita, Shin bayashi (new music performed in festivals), Kuriage (literally, upward move), etc. The music styles of 'Kita' tend to be traditional ones, but the groups in 'Higashi' often perform music which is relatively newly composed.
It is 'Shangiri' if you hear a sound like "chiki chin chiki chin chiki chin chiki chin ~" and "jiki jin jiki jin jiki jin jiki jin ~." Although the name origin is not clear yet, there are types of ohayashi (festival music) called 'Shangiri' in many parts of the nation. Also, at yose (vaudeville theater) and theaters, it is 'Shagiri (niban daiko [literally, the second drum])' too that is played when the waiting time and break time are over.
Some older people take the view that 'Shangiri' comes from the corrupted form of 'Shagiri.'
Incidentally, the performance at the drawing danjiri in Senshu region consists only of this Shangiri (actual name is different).
Many regions call this part 'Nagare.'
Ji (Fundamental rhythm)
The rhythm known as Ji shows that danjiri-bayashi used to be integrated with a festival car (float) called 'danjiri,' and it is played as if the danjiri was drawn together, with the tempo of the performance lifting and dropping. Although 'Ichiriki' is mainly played for it, a type of music called 'Hashi' (bridge) is often inserted in the middle. In fact, 'Ji' is the performance that represents the drawing danjiri.
Danjiri-bayashi is played by a group consisting of four players who play oyadaiko, two gongs called male gong and female gong and kodaiko (a small drum). Oyadaiko, which is a beer keg shape, has a body carved from a zelkova tree. The stick to hit the oyadaiko is often made from oak and Japanese cypress. Sho, which is tub-shape, is made from mixed metal of copper and tin, the same as bronzeware. Shumoku is a wooden bell hammer for the gongs, and the head part is made from buckhorn. Kodaiko is less than a quarter of the size of Oyadaiko. The stick to hit the kodaiko is a little bit smaller than the one for oyadaiko, and some schools use sticks with flatly shaved bamboo. Many schools play kodaiko in the same rhythms as beating the gongs but some schools play kodaiko in the same rhythms as beating the frame of gongs. Oyadaiko have the most freedom (of musical expression) of these instruments. This is because oyadaiko can create various sounds by hitting the skin, the wooden frame and the tacks, and also through a combination of these. The big drum is called 'oya' (parent) because the oyadaiko player is the center of this four-person group and has to play the role of conductor.
The danjiri-bayashi of Gamo and Imafuku areas and that of Nagae region used to perform competitively against one another at the Tenjin Festival; the former played at the precincts of the shrine, the same as the present day, and the latter played at the north side of the main shrine building. Sometime after the World War Ⅱ, Gamo and Imafuku areas came to have charge of the danjiri-bayashi hosted by Tenma ichiba (market) and Nagae region came to take charge of danjiri-bayashi organized by Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market. The former still performed at the same precincts of Osaka Tenman-gu Shrine but the latter came to dedicate their danjiri-bayashi on a sea bream ship for funatogyo (ritual to place divine spirits on the boat to cross the river; abandoned after about 1972). Even so, danjiri-bayashi of the Nagae region were sometimes dedicated at the precincts of Osaka Tenman-gu Shrine as a 'guest' by around the 40th year of the Showa Period.
These are called 'Tenma-style' and 'Nagae-style.'
There are differences between the two, such as the dance, drumstick-work, tempo and the sign at the turn of the music.
Generally, the Tenma-style which comes from 'Higashi' is the majority and Nagae-style from 'Kita' is the minority group. Even so, these two styles have many commonalities.
In the 'Nishi' region, however, there is a danjiri-bayashi whose style can't be seen in either 'Higashi' or 'Kita.'
And this 'Nishi' style has been passed down to not only the region in the west side of Tenman-gu Shrine, but the preservation societies, Ko and Ren in Kitakawachi District and a part of Nakakawachi District have acceded to the style.
It is a type of music called 'Shikoro-bayashi,' and the parts where the players need to drum 'consciously' are longer than those of 'Higashi' and 'Kita.'
As each style keeps up the traditions, including some groups that added newness into it, it is impossible to decide which is better.
Higashi (danjiri-bayashi mainly performed in Higashi region) is also called 'Tenma-style.'
The overwhelming majority of danjiri-byahashi in Osaka City have inherited this 'Higashi' style. This is apparently related to the dramatic decrease in numbers for 'Nagae-style,' no longer played up by the media since the dedication ritual on the sea bream ship was abandoned in 1972. Higashi' features the performance which is played considerably uptempo from the beginning. Many fans of danjiri-bayashi are fascinated by the heavy and fast drumming. When it comes to the last movement Shangiri, it is played at quite a speed, but the last "chiki chiki chin, kon" is played at a slow tempo. Uta' of Higashi includes new songs. And their dance name was generalized to 'Ryu odori' (dragon dancing) by media as time went by. You can find the newness of 'Tenma-style' in the dance, such as mimicking dancers' fingers dragon's nails, and there are great numbers of preservation societies, Ko and Ren of danjiri-bayashi that mimic it. Some preservation societies, Ko and Ren provide the highlight that two pairs of dancers dance in close and then distant formation. Even though there was opposition from Tenma ichiba ("Osaka Shunju" vol. 49), it can be said that it was an innovation for women to dance. In addition, the uptempo performance of 'Higashi' is thought to be a typical example of the music of danjiri-bayashi becoming free from the restrictions of drawing danjiri. This made it possible for festival music to be played in dashing-mode.
Kita (danjiri-bayashi mainly performed in the north region in relation to Tenman-gu Shrine) is so called 'Nagae-style.'
The region where the danjiri-bayashi is played in this old style is limited to only a few parts of Osaka City. The Ichiriki part starts at relatively slow tempo with the prospect of 'drawing speed' at the time danjiri had been drawn. Although the speed is still not changed at the Niriki part, the tempo goes up at Shangiri part; the last part of the Shangiri speeds up even more and the very last part "jiki jiki jikkon" stays uptempo as well. The dance is called as danjiri odori (sometimes called 'tanuki odori [raccoon dog dance]' and 'Kitsune odori [fox dance]' too). Putting hands on the ground, which comes from 'Un wo tsuku' (wishing to be in luck), is the basics of the dance form. In the performance with oyadaiko, some players make acrobatic movements such as spinning around the sticks. Many preservation societies, Ko and Ren take the showy drumming ways (of Higashi-style) into their performances. Also, drumming kodaiko with flat bamboo sticks (or sticks that changed the shape of drum sticks) is quite characteristic of this style.
The origin of this style is thought to lie in the one mainly performed in Fukushima region (placed in the west part in relation to Tenman-gu Shrine).
Therefore it is called 'Nishi.'
Nishi' differs widely with 'Higashi' and 'Kita' in that "chiki chiki chin" is inserted between the 'Niriki' and 'Uta' part. It can be checked on the homepage of the danjiri-bayashi of Sumiyoshi-jinja Shrine in Konohana Ward. Nishi' inserts the "chiki chiki chin" at every calling out, while 'Higashi' and 'Kita' inserts the same ceremonial rhythmic hand clapping. Sometimes even 'magarito' are played in long versions or original music is played depending on the regions. In Kitakawachi (ironically, it is placed further east than the 'Higashi' region) which possesses a big danjiri, many groups inherit the danjiri-bayashi of this style, and moreover, perform combining original hayashi based on it.