Yamashiro no Kuni (Yamashiro Province) (山城国)

Yamashiro no Kuni, located in Kinai, was one of the administrative province (Ryoseikoku). It was situated in the southern part of present day Kyoto. It was also called Joshu (unusually it is also alled Sanshu) or Yoshu. In the Engishiki, it is ranked as Kokushi-kuni tokyu (a Kokushi (official) governing province).


"Yamashiro" was written as 山代 in ancient times, and in the 7th century, the province (kuni) was founded with the name written as 山背国.
On November 8, 794 (Enryaku 13), when the capital was named Heian-kyo (Heian Palace), the Emperor Kammu changed the second letter of the province's name to 山城国

Based on the writings of "mokkan"-strips of wood used for writing during the Heijo-kyo (Heijo Palace) period, the notations of Yamashiro no Kuni as 山代国 and 山背国 seem to have coexisted with 山城国.

According to Wamyo Ruijusho, the provincial government office (Kokufu) was situated at the Kaya Imperial Villa (Kaya Detached Palace).

On the other hand, it is recorded as "Otokuni-gun (Otokuni District), Fu (Office)" in Shugaisho.

In the colophon and afterward titled "Keicho-two Enirinshi" of Setsuyoshu (proofed by Ekirin) it is also recorded as "Otokuni-gun (Otokuni District), Fu (Office)."

As for Shugosho (governor's office), at first, the mansion of the Gokenin of Kyoto Shugo (Kyoto governor) was designated because the person holding the post of Kyoto Shugo concurrently took charge of Yamashiro Province's Shugo. Later, Rokuhara Tandai held the post of the Province Shugo, and therefore, the office (Shugosho) was moved to Rokuhara. In Muromachi period, the Yamashiro Province was divided along the Uji River into three upper districts and five lower districts; after an associate shugo (shugodai) was designated to each district the Shugosho in charge of the three upper districts was situated in Uji Makishima, while Shugosho for the five lower districts were placed in several places such as Yodo.

Ichinomiya (primary shrine), Provincial monastery (temple), and Others
The provincial temple -with monastery for priests as well as convent for priestess-, were located in Soraku District. The Daigokuden Hall of the Kuni no Miya Shrine was designated as a monastery (soji) in 746. It was burned down in 882. Afterwards it was reconstructed but its influence declined.
In Kamakura period, it seems that the temple was categorized as the lowest level temple within the Byodo-in school
The provincial temple was located at present day Kamo-cho, Kizugawa city. In 1925 (14th year of Taisho) a large number of old [roof] tiles were excavated near the provincial temple, and implying that there was a convent there.

In Engi-Shiki Jinmei-cho (shrines' name directory) a total of 122-za and 96-sha are recorded, consisting of 53-za/37-sha of taisha (big shrines)(within these shrines, 23-za/16-sha of dai myojin are included) and 69-za/59-sha of shosha (small shrines). In addition to these shrines, 36-za (30 big za, and 6 small za) in the imperial court and 3-daiza in Kyoto are also registered.

Kamo Shrines are the first shrines (Ichinomiya) in Kyoto -Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine (called Kamigamo Shrine) at Kita district, and Kamomioya Shrine (called Shimogamo Shrine) at Sakyo district. Unlike in other local provinces, it is considered that Jingi-kan had some influence over the designation of the first shrine (Ichinomiya) in Yamashiro Province; because of this, while the establishment of Ichinomiya in other provinces took place starting at the end of the 11th century the designation of Ichinomiya in Kinai (Kansai Region) began during the 12th century. There is no secondary (Ninomiya) and lower level shrines. As for the soja shrine, the information is not available.

Otokuni-gun/Otokuni District
Kado-gun/Kado District
Otagi-gun/Otagi District
Kii-gun/Kii District
Uji-gun/Uji District
Kuse-gun/Kuse District
Tsuzuki-gun/Tsuzuki District
Soraku-gun/Soraku District

Kamakura Shogunate
~1221 Kyoto Shugo took charge concurrently.
1221~1333 Rokuhara Tandai took charge concurrently
Muromachi Shogunate
1353~1384- Samurai-dokoro took charge concurrently
1385~1386 - Ujikiyo YAMANA
1389 - Yoshinori AKAMATSU
1389~1390 - Ujikiyo YAMANA
1390~1391 - Yoshinori AKAMATSU
1391 - Ujikiyo YAMANA
1392~1394 - Motokuni HATAKEYAMA
1394~1399 - Mando KETSUSHIRO
1399 -Takanori KYOGOKU
1399~1402 - Mando KETSUSHIRO
1402~1403 - Motokuni HATAKEYAMA
1404~1416 - Morohide TAKASHI
1418~1421 - Yoshitsura ISSHIKI
1421~1423 - Takakazu KYOGOKU
1424~1428 - Mochitaka KYOGOKU
1428~1433 - Mitsuie HATAKEYAMA
1433~1434 - Mochikuni HATAKEYAMA
1434~1436 - Yoshitsura ISSHIKI
1436~1439 - Mitsusuke AKAMATSU
1440~1441 - Mochitoyo YAMANA
1441~1447 - Mochikiyo KYOGOKU
1447~1449 - Norichika ISSHIKI
1450~1455 - Mochikuni HATAKEYAMA
1455~1460 - Yoshinari HATAKEYAMA
1460~1463 - Masanaga HATAKEYAMA
1464~1468 - Koretoyo YAMANA
1474~1478 - Masatoyo YAMANA
1478~1483 - Masanaga HATAKEYAMA
1486~1490 - Sadamichi ISE
1493~1507 - Yoshioki OUCHI
1508~1518 - Yoshioki OUCHI
1518~1531 - Takakuni HOSOKAWA
1532~1549 - Harumoto HOSOKAWA

Yamashiro no Kami
FUJIWARA no Muneyo
Tramori OBATA
Ujitsuna ARAKI
Hisahide MATSUNAGA, Jushii no ge
Takanobu RYUZOJI
Kanetsugu NAOE, Jugoi no ge (1583 (Tensho 1)~)
Sadamasa TOKI, Jugoi no ge (1593 (Bunroku 2) ~)
Sadayoshi TOKI, Jugoi no ge
Masanobu TAKEKOSHI, Jugoi no ge (1611 (Keicho 16) ~)
Yoriyuki TOKI, Jugoi no ge (October 28, 1624 (Kanei 1) ~)
Masaharu TAKEKOSHI, Jugoi no ge
Masateru TAKEKOSHI, Jugoi no ge
Masatake TAKEKOSHI, Jugoi no ge
Katsuoki TAKEKOSHI, Jugoi no ge
Masasada TAKEKOSHI, Jugoi no ge
Naosuke NAGAI, Jugoi no ge
Naonori NAGAI, Jugoi no ge

[Original Japanese]