Hatamoto-satsu (a local currency during the Edo period) (旗本札)

Hatamoto-satsu was the paper money that a hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu [Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun]) who possessed his or her own territory in the Edo period issued independently in his or her own territory.


As is evident in the name, Hatamoto-satsu was paper money that a Hatamoto issued in his chigyo-chi (territory) during the Edo period. Since the chigyo-chi of Hatamoto was not called Han (a domain) in general, this paper money was called as such to differentiate it from Han-satsu (the paper money issued by a clan). However, since it was issued and operated in a manner that was quite similar to Han-satsu, Hatamoto-satsu is sometimes treated as Han-satsu in a broad sense.

The chigyo-chi of Hatamoto existed widely in the Kanto region centered on Musashi Province where Edo was located. However, while no record exists that Hatamoto-satsu was issued in this region, many records exist concerning money being issued in the following areas; western areas from Shinano Province and Mikawa Province to the Kyushu region, in particular, the Kinki region (Omi Province, Yamato Province, Settsu Province, Tanba Province, Tajima Province, and Harima Province) and Bitchu Province in the Chugoku region. This situation would have been caused by the following reasons: The Kanto region, which was the base of the bakufu, was strongly controlled by the bakufu, and as the economy was based on silver in Saigoku (the western region of Japan), more paper money was used there. The clans in the Kanto region did not issue Han-satsu before the Meiji Restoration, except the issuance in the tobichi (detached land) territory in Saigoku. Some clans in the Kanto region that had their tobichi territories in the Kinai region (the five capital provinces surrounding the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto) attempted to issue Han-satsu in their own clans in the Kanto region, however the currency had to be halted as people in these clans were not familiar with the use of paper money.

The provinces in the Kinki region and in Bitchu Province, where bakufu's territories, clans' territories, the tobichi territories in other clans, the territories of Gosankyo (three privileged branch families of the Tokugawa family), and Hatamoto's territories mixed quite complicatedly, were the area of advanced commodity economy as well. Therefore, transactions with other territories comprised a large portion of economic activities in these areas. In addition, after the late Edo period, the bakufu took the policy of intentionally controlling the amount of the silver-based currencies that was being circulated, and therefore, lots of promissory notes and Han-satsu were used for transactions. Consequently, the economy in Hatamoto's territories was quite negatively affected by the inflow of Han-satsu and the like from other territories. In order to prevent this situation from occurring, not a few Hatamoto territories were forced to issue their own paper money as small clans and the tobichi territories of the clans in the Kanto region were. On the other hand, for the kotaiyoriai (alternate yoriai, a family status of samurai warriors in the Edo period), that were Hatamoto but were obliged to keep Sankinkotai (a system under which feudal lords in the Edo period were required to spend every other year residing in Edo) and ensured the control system similar to that of daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) because their earnings were less than 10,000 koku of rice (approximately 180 liters per koku), it is also considered that there might have been slightly more independent situations to issue paper money.

Additionally, the paper money by the Hatamoto, the Matsudaira family in Nagasawa, Hoi County, Mikawa Province was exceptional case. Being provided a high status due to its close relationship with the Tokugawa shogun family, the Matsudaira family in Nagasawa was treated as Hatamoto with the kotaiyoriai status, but earned only 200 koku of rice for chigyo (control of a territory). Therefore, after allowance of the right to issue paper money from the bakufu, the family provided the right to towns and villages as the legal guarantee of issuing paper money and as the credibility of such money, to secure income. The Hatamoto-satsu of the Nagasawa-Matsudaira family was issued in several provinces such as Omi, Yamato, Kawachi, Izumi, Harima, and Bitchu.

In 1871, the new government checked the Han-satsu and the like that had been issued, to establish a new currency system. Then, after confirming that 244 clans, approximately 80 percents of all clans in the nation, 14 magistrate's offices, and 9 Hatamoto territories had issued paper money, the government specified a rate of exchange, to be used to exchange each of these paper moneys for a new currency, to correct the situation. However, the Hatamoto who issued the paper money were only those of the Hatamoto who were actually checked by the new government during the early Meiji period. Of the existing old paper money and the like, ones that contain the Hatamoto-satsu written on the surface of the paper money are sometimes found, which can be classified as Hatamoto-satsu, it has been revealed that at least several tens of Hatamoto issued Hatamoto-satsu.

Chubu region

It has been confirmed that Hatamoto-satsu was issued in the three provinces of Shinano Province (present Nagano Prefecture), Mikawa Province (the present eastern part of Aichi Prefecture) and Mino Province (the present southern part of Gifu Prefecture). Many of the Hatamoto who issued Hatamoto-satsu in this region were those with the kotaiyoriai status.

Shinano, Mikawa, and Mino Provinces

In the Shinano Province, the Sengoku clan in Yazawa, Chiisagata County (present Tonoshiro, Ueda City, Nagano Prefecture) issued small amount of zeni-satsu (a kind of Han-satsu) such as 16 mon (a unit of currency) paper money and 24 mon paper money in January 1863, to mitigate the difficult situation in trade that had been caused by the shortage of government-issued money due to the confusion that occurred during the end of the Edo period. The Ogasawara clan in Izuki, Ina County (present Izuki, Iida City, Nagano Prefecture), who was a member of the Ina group of the Hatamoto with the kotaiyoriai-shu status, issued paper money in the early Meiji period. The Izuki-Ogasawara clan's paper money issued in 1869 has its surface format style slightly resembling the Daijokan-satsu paper money issued by the Meiji new government, as well as the Han-satsu issued by clans in the same period throughout Japan.

In Mikawa Province, the Suganuma clan in Shinshiro, Shitara County (present Shinshiro, Shinshiro City, Aichi Prefecture), which was provided with kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu (a status of the kotaiyoriai similar to daimyo), and the Nagasawa-Matsudaira family in Nagasawa, Hoi County (present Nagasawa-cho, Toyokawa City, Aichi Prefecture), which was provided with status equivalent to the shishu (four major groups of kotaiyoriai) of kotaiyoriai-shu families, issued paper money. Shinshiro-Suganuma clan's paper money had a style resembling the Shukueki-satsu issued in Shukueki (relay station towns) along the Tokaido road, because it was located at an important distribution spot in the Shinshu-kaido road connecting the Tokaido road to the Shinano Province. As previously described, the Nagasawa-Matsudaira clan's paper money was issued in various provinces independently; it was strongly affected by the money-format style in the area where it was issued. Since several versions of the money were issued in each province, the paper currency in Yamato, Kawachi, Izumi, and Bitchu Provinces were undertaken various people because of the characteristics of the provinces.

In Mino Province, the Takenaka clan in Iwate, Fuwa County (present Iwate, Tarui Town, Fuwa County, Gifu Prefecture), which was provided with kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status, and the Takagi clan in Tara, Ishizu County (present, Miya, Kamiishizu-cho, Ogaki City, Gifu Prefecture), which was a member of Mino group of the Hatamoto with the yoriaikotai-shu status, issued paper money. The paper currencies issued by both clans in the western Mino area was so-called Sumidai-satsu (literally, paper money for charcoal price) issued by Sumikaisho (literally, a charcoal association) to make the money circulated by using it in trading charcoal that was a daily necessity.

Kinki region

Provinces close to Kyoto, where, of the three capitals, Kyoto and Osaka were located, were in the state of a typical hi-ryogokuchiiki area (where the area was divided minutely, with each piece of area owned by a different person) as in the Kanto region, except Kii Province (present Wakayama Prefecture and the southern part of the Mie Prefecture) and Awaji Province (present entire area of the Awaji island in Hyogo Prefecture). The provinces where Hatamoto-satsu was confirmed to have been issued were the followings: the Omi Province (present Shiga Prefecture), the Yamato Province (present Nara Prefecture), the Settsu Province (present northern part of Osaka Prefecture and present southeastern part of the Hyogo Prefecture), the Kawachi Province (present southeastern part of Osaka Prefecture), the Izumi Province (present southwestern part of Osaka Prefecture), the Tanba Province (present central part of Kyoto Prefecture, and Sasayama City and Tanba City, Hyogo Prefecture), the Tajima Province (present northern part of Hyogo Prefecture), and the Harima Province (present southwestern part of Hyogo Prefecture).

The Kinki region was at the center of the location where the Satsu-tsukai (Han-satsu) was used, and not a few chigyo-chi territories of Hatamoto existed there as well. Therefore, Hatamoto-satsu was issued by many Hatamoto persons.
As the situation was dependent on the province, how Hatamoto-satsu was issued is described as follows for each province:

Omi Province

Hatamoto-satsu issued in the Omi Province was provided with the feature that the money was issued by high-class Hatamoto with kotaiyoriai or hatamoto yoriaiseki (a family rank of high-ranking hatamoto, direct vassal of the shogun) status. The Kuchiki clan (kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu) in Kuchiki, Takashima County (present Kuchikinojiri, Takashima City, Shiga Prefecture), from where the head family linage of the Kuchiki family in Fukuchiyama clan, was a distinguished family on which the Ashikaga shogun family often counted in emergencies. The Mogami clan in Omori, Gamo County (present Omori-cho, Higashiomi City) was originally a distinguished clan in the Dewa Province and the lord of the Yamagata-jo Castle, but due to family issues, the amount of its chigyo-chi territory was reduced and transferred to this location. Later, as its territory was further reduced, the clan was provided with kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status, while retaining Kokushu (a daimyo owing a territory) status. The Saigusa clan (also referred as the Saegusa clan) in Iba, Kanzaki County (present Iba-cho, Higashiomi City) was a distinguished clan in the Kai Province of which members were senior vassals to the Takeda clan. The Seki clan in Nakayama, Gamo County (present Nakayama, Hino Town, Gamo County, Shiga Prefecture) had been a daimyo who assumed the lord of the Kameyama-jo Castle in the Ise Province and the lord of the Kurosaka-jo Castle in the Hoki Province. However, due to family issues the territory was confiscated, and its adopted son, for whom the Hatamoto status was given a new, established the present Seki family. The Negoro clan in Oiso, Gamo County (present Higashioiso, Azuchi Town, Gamo County), was a descendant of Morishige SEISHININ of Negoro-ji Temple in Kii Province who resisted attacks on Negoro-ji Temple by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI, and came to belong to the Tokugawa family later. In addition to Oiso, where the clan had jinya (a regional government office), the Oiso-Negoro clan issued Hatamoto-satsu with a similar surface format style, in its territory in Uchi County, Yamato Province.

Although assumed to be used as gin-date (payment based on silver) or sen-date (payment based on sen [a unit of currency at that time]) paper money, Hatamoto-satsu in Omi Province was provided with the feature that each piece of the paper money was nominally a stamp for goods (or exchange ticket) such as follows: Sumi-kitte (stamps for charcoal) issued by the Kuchiki clan, Tane-kitte (stamps for seeds) by the Iba-Saigusa clan, Mame-kitte (stamps for beans) by the Nakayama-Seki clan, Mame-tegata (promissory notes for beans) by the Oiso-Negoro clan, and Cha-kitte (stamps for tea) by the Omori-Mogami clan. In Omi Province, many of the Han-satsu issued in its clans in the Edo period such as that issued by the Hikone clan, that by the Mizuguchi clan, and that by the Omizo clan, were provided with similar features.

Yamato Province

Yamato Province was an area with one of the most advanced commodity economies in Japan. In addition to Han-satsu and Hatamoto-satsu, various types of paper money were issued here including the Gomengin-satsu paper money substituted silver coin which an autonomous body in Yoshino County issued under the allowance of the bakufu with the similar style to Yamada-hagaki in Ise Province, known as the oldest paper money in Japan, and the Jisha-satsu issued by big temples or shrines. The economy of this area in which Zaigomachi (villages with the function of a town) developed to purchase fertilizers (such as dried sardines and oil cake) and to sell commercial crops (such as cotton, rape, and tea) had strong economical connections with the Kawachi Province and Izumi Province along the popular distribution channels. Therefore, the Han-satsu, Hatamoto-satsu, and Jisha-satsu issued in this area were sometimes undertaken by various persons across the boundaries of the province, depending on the source that issued the paper money. Because lots of rice crops were produced in the Nara basin, many gin-satsu (paper money equivalent in value to a silver coin) in the Kome-tegata format (promissory notes for rice crop) were issued.

The Taga clan in Soga, Takaichi County (present Soga-cho, Kashihara City) was originally the lord of Omi Province, but later became Hatamoto of the Tokugawa family after serving Nagamasa AZAI and Hidenaga TOYOTOMI. The Sato clan that owned Toyota, Toichi County (present Toyota-cho, Kashihara City) and other territories accomplished distinguished achievements in the Battle of Sekigahara; therefore, gained additional territories in Yamato Province, Settsu Province and Omi Province in addition to the territory the clan had originally possessed in the Mino Province. The Oda family in Fukuchi, Uda County (present Fukuchi, Haibara Ward, Uda City) which was a descendant of Nobukatsu ODA, a son of Nobunaga ODA, was a branch of the Oda family in the Kaibara clan, and became the koke (privileged family under Tokugawa Shogunate) after kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status. The Hirano clan in Tawaramoto, Toichi County (present Tawaramoto Town, Shiki County) was a descendant of Nagayasu HIRANO, one of the seven spear soldiers at Mt. Shizugatake under Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI, and was provided with kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status. These Soga-Taga clan, Toyota-Sato clan, Fukuchi-Oda clan, and Tawaramoto-Hirano clan issued gin-satsu, which was undertaken by various local merchants who resided outside their respective territories but with whom they had transactions.

Of the Miyoshi clan that was dominant in Kyoto in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States), a family in the lineage of Kasho MIYOSHI, which had been picked by Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, owned the territories of Tango no sho manor, Soejimo County, Yamato Province (present Tangonosho-cho, Yamato-Koriyama City) and Morimedo, Yamabe County (present Morimedo-cho, Tenri City). The Mizuno clan in Nishitsuji, Oshime County which served including Nobunaga ODA and Ujimasa HOJO, and became a Hatamoto of the Tokugawa family later, owned territory in Yamato Province in addition to territory in Musashi Province and placed a jinya in Nishitsuji. The Kuwayama clan in Matsuzuka, Katsuraginoshimo County was a branch family of the Kuwayama clan in the Shinjo clan, and remained even after the main family of the clan was abolished. The Akai clan in Ikejiri, Tochi County (present Higashi-Ikejiri-cho, Kashihara City) was originally a local clan in the Tanba Province, and later served the Tokugawa family as its Hatamoto. The Todo clan in Bojo and Magarikawa, Takaichi County (present Higashibojo-cho and Magarikawa-cho, Kashihara City), was a branch family of the Todo clan in the Tsu clan. The Yamaguchi clan in Byodobo, Yamabe County (present Byodobo-cho, Tenri City) was a descendant of Naotomo YAMAGUCHI who assumed the post of sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies) and guard of Fushimi-jo Castle. Each of these Tangonosho Morimedo-Miyoshi clan, Nishitsuji-Mizuno clan, Matsuzuka-Kuwayama clan, Ikejiri-Akai clan, Bojo Magarikawa-Todo clan, and Byodobo-Yamaguchi clan issued its gin-satsu in the Kome-tegata format.

The Hotta clan which owned the eastern half of Takayama, Soejimo County (present Takayama-cho, Ikoma City) and neighboring Shikahata (present Shikahata-cho, Ikoma City) possessed a territory in Hitachi Province and in Omi Province as well, where the jinya located in Ueda, Koka County, Omi Province (Gika, Minakuchi-cho, Koka City) totally controlled. In Takayama, the Hotta clan issued gin-satsu through Kichibei NAKATANI (中谷吉兵衛), a shoya (village headman).

Both the Katagiri clan in Toyoura, Soejimo County (present Toyoura-cho, Yamato-Koriyama City) and the Katagiri clan in Izushichijo, Soejimo County (present Izushichijo-cho, Yamato-Koriyama City) were branch families of the Katagiri clan in the Koizumi clan. The former issued zeni-satsu in 1868 and the latter issued gin-satsu in the Kome-tegata format from the rice association in 1866, entrusted by the shoya, Toshiyori (elder chief of a village or town during Edo Period) and farmers.

Settsu, Kawachi, and Izumi Provinces

The three provinces of Settsu, Kawachi and Izumi were mostly Toyotomi family's territories even after the Tokugawa shogunate was established. Therefore, many of the Hatamoto in this area were local samurai or wealthy merchants picked by the Tokugawa family to expand its power and to stabilize the state of the area from around the Battle of Sekigahara to around the downfall of the Toyotomi family by The Siege of Osaka.

The Nose clan in Jio, Nose County, Settsu Province (present Jio, Nose-cho, Nose County, Osaka Prefecture) was a distinguished family in the lineage of Tada-Genji (Minamoto clan), but lost its territory when Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI invaded Nose County. After having wandered about various areas in the nation, the clan accomplished prominent achievements in the Battle of Sekigahara under the protection of Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, the head of Gotairo (the council of five elders) at that time, and was given its former territory of Nose County. Later, the Nose clan divided and ruled the territory. The Jio-Nose clan, the head family of the clan, issued Hatamoto-satsu since the Tenpo era (1830 to 1843). The Kirihata-Nose clan, the branch family in Kirihata, Nose County (present Kirihata, Toyono Town, Nose County, Osaka Prefecture), issued Hatamoto-satsu in three additionally given villages in Hikami County, Tanba Province (present Aogaki-cho, Tanba City, Hyogo Prefecture).

The Hasegawa clan in Mizokui, Shimashimo County, Settsu Province (present Hoshimi-cho, Ibaraki City, Osaka Prefecture) was a descendant of Moritomo HASEGAWA, a daimyo in the early Edo period. Moritomo belonged to the West squad in the Battle of Sekigahara, being in charge of guarding Mitsunari ISHIDA's Sawayama-jo Castle. However, since his secretly communication with the East squad after defeat in the battle triggered the collapse of the castle, he was rewarded with a daimyo post by the Tokugawa family. When going to die in the Kanei era (1624 to 1643), Moritomo divided his territory and gave each to his children and others. Therefore, all of them became Hatamoto. The Mizokui-Hasegawa clan, owing several territories in addition to the one in Shimashimo County, Settsu Province, issued Hatamoto-satsu in Mizokui, Shimashimo County, Settsu Province, and in Ouchi, Boya County, Bitchu Province (present Ouchi, Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture), and so on.

In Kawachi Province, the Kainosho clan, a descendant of Masashige KUSUNOKI and having been the lord of Eboshigata-jo Castle and so on, was specifically picked by Ieyasu TOKUGAWA to become a Hatamoto entitled to control five villages in Nishikibe County (present Kawachi-nagano City, Osaka Prefecture), and issued Hatamoto-satsu.

In Sakai, Izumi Province (present Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture), Sokun IMAI, a son of Sokyu IMAI of a wealthy merchant, was specifically picked as a local governor by the Tokugawa family after The Siege of Osaka to become a Hatamoto, having a residence in Sakai-shukuin-cho, and issued Hatamoto-satsu.

Tanba Province

In Tanba Province, the Tanba-kameyama clan and Sasayama clan in the southern part, and the Fukuchiyama clan in the northern part each owned a comparatively large-sized territory. However, the other area of the province was a hi-ryogokuchiiki area with the territories of small clans, tobichi territories of Kanto or Tohoku regions, Hatamoto's territories, bakufu's territories, and so on existing complicatedly mixed. The chigyo-chi of the Hatamoto who issued Hatamoto-satsu ranged in Kuwata County, Ikaruga County and Hikami County of the six counties that existed in the Edo period.

In the Kuchi Tanba area near Kyoto, the Tanba-Kameyama clan was in charge of guarding the Sanindo road, and Tanba-Kameyama-jo Castle was used as the lord's residence. The Sugiura clan in Umaji, Kuwata County (present Umaji-cho, Kameoka City, Kyoto Prefecture) and the Takeda clan in Kawarajiri, Kuwata County (present Kawarajiri, Kawarabayashi-cho, Kameoka City, Kyoto Prefecture) issued gin-satsu in this area. The Sugiura clan called itself a descendant of Yoshimori WADA, consisting of fudai (a daimyo in hereditary vassal) to the Tokugawa family to produce many Hatamoto. While the territories of Umaji-Sugiuwa clan were located in Sagami Province and in Tanba Province separately, the clan placed the jinya in Umaji, Kuwata County, to issue paper money through Kakubei ZENIYA of the 'Kakeya,' the position who was in charge of the accounts of products, such as kuramai (the rice crop to be sold). The Kawarajiri-Takeda clan, a family of the Takeda clan, a Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period) in Kai Province, owned territories scattered in Tanba Province.
Placing a magistrate's office in Kawarajiri, Kuwata County, the clan issued gin-satsu in the name of kuramoto (the merchant who handled the money of the family)

The water transportation route through the Yura-gawa River flourished in Ikaruga County in Oku-Tanba area in the northern part of Tanba Province, where Hatamoto territories in addition to the Ayabe clan and Yamaga clan were located. The Shiroshita-Fujikake clan in Ishibashi (Shiroshita [城下]), Ikaruga County (present Ishibashi, Yatsuai-cho, Ayabe City) around the Kanbayashi-gawa River, a tributary of the Yura-gawa River, was a daimyo under the Toyotomi government, but its territory was reduced because the clan supported the West squad in the Battle of Sekigahara to be forced to become Hatamoto. The Shiroshita-Fujikake clan issued gin-satsu through his Kakeya officer. The Tokura-Tani clan in Tokura, Ikaruga County (present Tokuranaka-machi, Ayabe City, Kyoto Prefecture), which placed its jinya at a slightly lower reach from Shiroshita of the Kanbayashi-gawa River, and the Umezako-Tani clan in Umezako, Ikaruga County (present Umezako-cho, Ayabe City, Kyoto Prefecture) that was located across a mountainous area in the north of Tokura were each a branch family of the Tani clan in the Yamaga clan. The Tokura-Tani clan issued gin-satsu through the Kakeya officer, and the Umezako-Tani clan issued gin-satsu through the paper association, and others, because Kurotani washi (Japanese paper made in Kurotani) was produced in the Kurotani area in its territory.

Hikami County, in the western end of Tanba Province, was located in the upper reaches of the Kako-gawa River (whose upper reach portion was called the Saji-gawa River as well) that flew to the Sea of Harima in Seto Inland Sea through Harima Province. Because of convenience of commodity distribution to Osaka, the economic center, river ports for the water transportation of the Kako-gawa River, such as Hongo and Saji, developed there, providing goods transportation functions in a broad area beyond the county. Although the jinya of the Oda clan in the Tanba-Kaibara clan was located in Kaibara of Hikami County (present Kaibara, Kaibara-cho, Tanba City), the clan was small in size with its territory scattered in various areas of Tanba Province. In addition, it was also a hi-ryogokuchiiki area mixing with tobichi territories of clans in Kanto, Tokai, and Kinki regions and big or small Hatamoto territories.

The Maki clan in Saji and Ogura, Hikami County (present Saji, and Ogura, Aogaki-cho, Tanba City) became a Hatamoto of Ieyasu TOKUGAWA when Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI attacked Odawara-jo Castle after being a retainer of Nobunaga ODA, that of Kazumasu TAKIGAWA, and so on. The Ando clan in Shingo, Hikami County (present Shingo, Hikami-cho, Tanba City), was a branch family of the Ando clan in the Takasaki clan of Kozuke Province. The Inoue clan in Hongo, Hikami County (present Hongo, Hikami-cho, Tanba City), a branch family of the Inoue clan in the Takaoka clan of Shimosa Province and having owning a territory in Totomi Province, was additionally given territory in Hikami County, Tanba Province, as well, to increase the amount of rice produced. The Kawakatsu clan in Nakayama, Hikami County (present Nakayama, Kasuga-cho, Tanba City), was a descendant of a kokujin ryoshu (local samurai lord) of Tanba Province. These Saji and Ogura-Maki clans, Shingo-Ando clan, Hongo-Inoue clan and Yamanaka-Kawakatsu clan issued gin-satsu or the Komedai-azukari gin-satsu, on which the explicit description it was worth of rice price.

The Honda clan in Tada, Hikami County (present Minamitada, Kaibara-cho, Tanba City), was a branch family of the Honda clan in the Shirakawa clan, Mutsu Province. The Tada-Honda clan issued gin-satsu through its Kakeya officer.

The Sano clan in Oniya, Hikami County (present Oniya, Kaibara-cho, Tanba City), was originally a distinguished family of a daimyo of the Edo bakufu after being gokenin (a lower-ranked direct retainer) of the Kamakura bakufu, a retainer of Kamakura kubo (the governor-general of the Kanto region) in the Muromachi bakufu, and a daimyo under the Toyotomi government. However, the clan was abolished in the early Edo period, and remained existing as a Hatamoto. The Oniya-Sano clan issued a type of zeni-satsu paper money on which it was explicitly written to be converted to gold. This was assumed the paper money was issued as currency of gold or sen unit as well as many clans in western Japan did after Meiji new government stopped the circulation of silver currency. It is also found that the paper money issued by Saji and Ogura-Maki clans also include this type of money in addition to the previously mentioned Komedai-azukari gin-satsu.

Tajima Province

Tajima Province, not included in the area controlled by both machi-bugyosho (the office in charge of townspeople's affairs) in Kyoto and Osaka, was located far from kamigata (the Kyoto and Osaka area). This might be caused the province, as well as the neighboring Tango Province, did not have a large clanbut was shapely-divided and organized such as the territories of Izushi clan, Toyooka clan, bakufu, and so on, rather than other provinces did the Kinki region. While some Hatamoto families owned territories in Tajima Province, the families that issued Hatamoto-satsu were former shugo daimyo (the daimyo who became a daimyo from shugo, which was a Japanese provincial military governor) families or daimyo families.

The Yamana clan in Muraoka, Shichimi County (present Muraoka, Muraoka Ward, Kami Town, Mikata County, Hyogo Prefecture), was a powerful daimyo, one of the families of Sankanrei (three families in the post of kanrei, or shogunal deputy) and Shishiki (four major feudal lords) in the Muromachi bakufu. However, later, Toyokuni YAMANA, the military governor of Inaba Province, surrendered to Hideyoshi HASHIBA to become Otogishu (whose function was to chat with his master). The clan was picked by Ieyasu TOKUGAWA through the Battle of Sekigahara, and given the entire area of Shichimi County to become a Hatamoto with kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status. During the Meiji Restoration, the clan which established the Muraoka clan, as a review was carried out for the purpose of increasing the amount of rice produced, issued Hatamoto-satsu while having been a Hatamoto. After having established the clan, the clan changed the surface format of the paper money and issued Han-satsu.

The Kyogoku clan in Itoi, Yabu County (present Terauchi, Wadayama-cho, Asago City, Hyogo Prefecture), was a branch family of the Kyogoku clan in the Toyooka clan and was a descendant of a Shishoku family as well as the Yamana family. The Itoi-Kyogoku clan issued paper money issued by Itoi Hikikae-sho (an exchange place in Itoi) and the paper money undertaken by Shigesuke IZUMIYA and others in Osaka.

The Koide clan, the lord of the Izushi clan, produced four Hatamoto branch families in Tajima Province before the family was abolished with no heir later. They were the Minokami and Yamamoto-Koide clans in Minokami and Yamamoto in Keta County (present Minokami or Yamamoto, Hidaka-cho, Toyooka City, Hyogo Prefecture), the Kurami-Koide clan in Kurami, Izushi County (present Kurami, Toyooka City, Hyogo Prefecture), the Oyabu-Koide clan in Oyabu, Yabu County (present, Oyabu, Yabu City, Hyogo Prefecture), and the Handa-Koide clan in Handa, Yabu County (present Handa, Wadayama-cho, Asago City, Hyogo Prefecture). It has been confirmed that, of them, at least the Minokami and Yamamoto-Koide clans, the Kurami-Koide clan, and the Oyabu-Koide clan issued Hatamoto-satsu.

Harima Province

It has been confirmed that, in Harima Province, quite a variety of paper money, such as Han-satsu, Hatamoto-satsu, Jisha-satsu, Choson-satsu (paper money issued by a town or a village), and Shijin-satsu (paper money issued by a private person), were issued. Harima Province was one of the richest grain-yielding areas in the nation, and, together with other provinces in the Kinai region, flourished in growing commercial farm products. In addition, with their substantial population, the province was a typical Hi-ryogokuchiiki, except the Himeji clan, Akashi clan and Ako clan, each of which occupied a sizable territory. Located almost in the center of Harima Province, the Himeji clan had a sizable economic power that affected its surrounding areas, for example, the exclusive sales of cotton. However, each of the surrounding areas formed a relatively independent economic area, depending on road transportation along the Saigoku-kaido road or the Mimasaka and Inaba-kaido roads, or on water transportation on the Kako-gawa River, the Ichi-kawa River (in Hyogo Prefecture), or the Ibo-gawa River. Hatamoto-satsu was strongly affected by the characteristics of each small territory of the Hatamoto.

It was a feature of the Han-satsu and Hatamoto-satsu in Harima Province that senme-satsu (paper money convertible to sen) was issued widely. Senme-satsu was a paper money with the following features: The face value was written in monme, bu, or rin (each a monetary unit at that time) of the silver unit, but it was also written there that the money would be exchanged into zeni (copper or iron coins) based on a certain gin (silver coin)-zeni exchange rate. This is an interesting business custom when talking about the monetary economy system in the Edo period, together with the Eisen-kanjo (a calculational procedure using Eiraku-tsuho [bronze coins struck in the Ming dynasty] as a fictional unit) in Bitchu Province and senme-satsu in the northern part of Kyushu and in the western part of Shikoku.

The Ikeda clan in Shingu, Itto County, was originally the Shimoma clan, a steward of Higashi Hongan-ji Temple. However, the clan became a retainer of his uncle Terumasa IKEDA, the lord of the Himeji clan, due to internal problems in inheriting the steward post, and was permitted to use the surname of Ikeda, and then established the Harima-Shingu clan. Later, the family was going to be abolished due to its lack of an heir, but as a result of earnest efforts by the family of the Okayama domain lord and Tottori clan's lord, its head family, was permitted to exist as a Hatamoto, although its territory was reduced. Its jinya was also placed in Shingu (present Shingu, Shingu-cho, Tatsuno City) since the time of the Shingu clan. The Mimasaka-kaido road was branched from the Saigoku-kaido road (Sanyo-do road) slightly west of the Himeji-jo Castle town towards the northwest direct, reaching the area of Tsuyama-jo Castle town in Mimasaka Province. The town of Shingu was located at the spot where the Mimasaka-kaido road came near to the Ibo-gawa River heavily used for water transportation. The Shingu-Ikeda clan issued gin-satsu and senme-satsu.

Further down the Mimasaka-kaido road, there were the chigyo-chi territories of three Hatamoto of the Matsui-Matsudaira clan such as Sayo, Sayo County (present Sayo, Sayo Town, Sayo County), Nagatani, Sayo County (present Kuchinagatani, Sayo Town, Sayo County), and Hirafuku, Sayo County (present Hirafuku, Sayo Town, Sayo County). These were the same clans derived from the Matsui-Matsudaira clan, the lord of Yamazaki clan, and established as Hatamoto families given the divided territories in Sayo County. Sayo was a shuku-eki (a relay station in road transportation) along the Mimasaka-kaido road, which was branched from Sayo to the Inaba-kaido road in the north. Hirafuku was a next shuku-eki along the Inaba-kaido road, and Nagatani was located slightly in the south of Hirafuku.
Furthermore, in the vicinity of each of these jinya places, the Chikusa-gawa River water system was used for water transportation
Although the three families lived near to each other, each of them issued its own paper money.

The Asano clan in Wakasano, Ako County (present Wakasano, Wakasano-cho, Aioi City), was located in the neighborhood downstream of the Chikusa-gawa River. This clan was a branch of the Asano family in the Ako clan famous for the Ako Incident in the Genroku era (1688 - 1704). Although its main family was abolished and the Ako clan came to be controlled by the Nagai clan, followed by the Mori clan, this clan continued owning its territory within Ako County most of which was occupied by the Ako clan. Undertaken by the Tennoji-ya money exchanger in Osaka, this Wakasano-Asano clan issued gin-satsu and senme-satsu. In the former jinya site in Wakasano, the office building where paper money-related jobs were done still exists.

The Asano clan in Iehara, Kato County (present Iehara, Kato City) in the eastern part of Harima Province, was also a branch of the main family of the Ako clan. The Asano clan in the Ako clan owned a territory in Kato County as well, in addition to Ako County where its castle residence was located, and placed a remote jinya in Hozumi, Kato County (present Hozumi, Kato City). However, after the Asano clan in the Ako clan was abolished due to the Ako Incident in the Genroku era, the site was officially confiscated by the bakufu, and villages including Hozumi became the territory of the Yagi clan, a Hatamoto. The Yagi clan used the Hozumi jinya of the Asano clan as the jinya for its own territory. The Yagi clan, a lineage of the family that branched in the Kamakura period from the Asakura clan which later became Sengoku daimyo, was the lord of Yagi-jo Castle when the Oda clan invaded Tajima Province. However, its territory was lost when the Mori clan fought with the Oda clan, and the clan was picked as Hatamoto of the Tokugawa family, by its distinguished accomplishments in the Battle of Sekigahara. Iehara was located in the vicinity of the Chidori-gawa River, a tributary of the Kako-gawa River, and Hozumi around the place where the Chidori-gawa River and the Kako-gawa River merged. Both the Iehara-Asano clan and the Hozumi-Yagi clan issued own gin-satsu and senme-satsu.

When the lord family of the Iyo-Saijo clan was abolished then pardoned later to become a Hatamoto, the Hitotsuyanagi clan in Takagi, Mino County (present Takagi, Bessho-cho, Miki City), was given villages centered on Takagi as its territory. Takagi was the Miki-jo Castle town where the Bessho clan lived, near Miki Town which was flourished as a hardware town by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI giving the town a tax-free privilege, and slightly in the north, the Mino-gawa river, a tributary of the Kako-gawa River, flowed to the west. With Mino County producing cotton, the Takagi-Hitotsuyanagi clan issued paper money in the form of stamps for cotton.

The Ikeda clan in Fukumoto, Jinto County (present Fukumoto, Kamikawa Town, Kanzaki County), was established as a branch clan of the Tottori clan. However, because its earning came to less than 10,000 koku after generating branch families, it became a Hatamoto with kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status. The territory of the Fukumoto-Ikeda clan and that of its two branch families (the Ogata-Ikeda clan and the Yoshitomi-Ikeda clan) occupied Jinto County and the northern part of Jinsai County in the upper reaches of the Ichi-kawa River (in Hyogo Prefecture), with Kufumoto located near the east side of the Ichi-kawa River. Although they reestablished a clan by receiving kuramai from the Tottori clan in the end of the Edo period, the Fukumoto-Ikeda clan issued gin-satsu and senme-satsu in 1822 when the clan was a Hatamoto, as well as in 1868 after having newly established its own clan.

Chubu region and Shikoku region

Many kunimochi-daimyo (daimyo with a big territory) were in the Chugoku and Shikoku regions, such as the Okayama clan (Bizen Province, present southeastern part of Okayama Prefecture), the Hiroshima clan (Aki Province, present western part of Hiroshima Prefecture), the Choshu clan (Nagato and Suo Provinces, present western and eastern parts of Yamaguchi Prefecture), the Tottori clan (Inaba and Hoki Provinces, present the western and eastern parts of Tottori Prefecture), the Matsue clan (Izumo Province, present eastern part of Shimane Prefecture), the Tokushima clan (Awa and Awaji Provinces, present Tokushima Prefecture and Awaji-shima Island, Hyogo Prefecture), and the Kochi clan (Tosa Province, present Kochi Prefecture), and only Bitchu Province (present western part of Okayama Prefecture) was in the hi-ryogokuchiiki state where Hatamoto territories were scattered.

Bitchu Province

Bitchu Province was occupied by 8 clans and more than 10 territories of Hatamoto families, the bakufu, and the Gosankyo, and so on including the 50,000-koku Bitchu-Matsuyama clan. Of them, all of the clans and almost all of the Hatamoto who placed their jinya offices to manage their territories in the province issued Han-satsu or Hatamoto-satsu. Bitchu Province is also known as an area where a variety of private paper money and the like were issued as well by towns, villages, wealthy farmers or wealthy merchants, and so on. The Hatamoto families that issued Hatamoto-satsu in Bitchu Province were descendants of powerful retainers of Sengoku daimyo, the Hatamoto families that had originally been daimyo of the Tokugawa shogunate but became Hatamoto because their territories were reduced, or branch families of daimyo families.

The Maita clan (the lord of the Asao clan, later Hatamoto reduced its territory, then reestablished the clan by a review towards increasing the amount of rice produced in the end of the Edo period) in Asao, Kaya County (present Monde, Soja City, Okayama Prefecture), and the Misu-Maita clan in Misu, Boya County (present Misu, Soja City, Okayama Prefecture), which was a Hatamoto established getting a portion of the Aso-Maita clan's territory, issued their own Hatamoto-satsu respectively.

The Yamazaki clan in Nariwa, Kawakami County (present Shimohara, Nariwa-cho, Takahashi City, Okayama Prefecture), was a branch family of the Yamazaki clan, a daimyo which governed the Tomioka clan in Higo Province and the Marugame clan in the Sanuki Province, and so on, and continued to exist with its jinya placed in the former Nariwa-jo Castle site of which the main family once served as the keeper, even after its main family was abolished. It was treated as a kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status, and established its own clan after the Meiji Restoration by a review towards increasing the amount of rice produced. The Nariwa-Yamazaki clan also issued Hatamoto-satsu when they were a Hatamoto.

Having originally been a retainer of the Ukita clan, a Sengoku daimyo, the Togawa clan was given Hatamoto status because of their acquaintance with Ieyasu TOKUGAWA related with his intermediacy on internal issues of the Ukita family. The Hatamoto Togawa clan consisted largely of the four families of the Natsukawa-Togawa clan (from the lord of the Niwase clan to be kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status by reducing its territory) in Natsukawa, Tsu County (present Natsukawa, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture), the Seno-Togawa clan in Seno, Tsu County (present Seno, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture), the Hayashima-Togawa clan in Hayashima, Tsu County (present Hayashima, Hayashima Town, Tsukubo County, Okayama Prefecture), and the Obie-Togawa clan in Obie, Tsu County (present Hashima, Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture), and each of them issued its own Hatamoto-satsu.

Having been a retainer of the Ukita clan as well, the Hanabusa clan was taken under Ieyasu TOKUGAWA's protection after an internal issued in the Ukita family, and belonged to the East squad in the Battle of Sekigahara. Furthermore, the clan was given Hatamoto status for the reason that the clan contributed to stabilize the state of Bitchu Province in post-battle operations. Placing its jinya in Harakosai of Takamatsu, Kayo County (present Takamatsuhara Kosai, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture), a neighborhood of Bitchu-Takamatsu-jo Castle famous for the inundation tactics of Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI (the Battle of Bitchu-Takamatsu-jo Castle), the clan issued Hatamoto-satsu. The Sakakibara clan, a Hatamoto in Tsudera, Tsu County (present Tsudera, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture), originated in the Hanabusa clan. However, on being picked by Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, the clan changed its name to Sakakibara to show its gratitude to the efforts of the Sakakibara clan, a fudai daimyo (a daimyo in hereditary vassal to the Tokugawa family) acting as an intermediary. The Tsudera-Sakakibara clan issued Hatamoto-satsu as well.

The Mizutani clan was the lord of Bitchu-Matsuyama clan, but was abolished due to having no heir. The Osakabe-Mizutani clan in Osakabe, Aga County (present Osaosakabe, Niimi City, Okayama Prefecture), and the Fukakokucho-Mizutani clan in Fuka, Kawakami County (present Fuka, Bitchu-cho, Takahashi City, Okayama Prefecture) existed as Hatamoto, and each issued its own Hatamoto-satsu.

The Ikeda clan, a Hatamoto in Ibara, Itsuki County (present Ibara-cho, Ibara City, Okayama Prefecture), belonged to the same clan as that of the Ikeda clan in the Tottori clan and in the Okayama clan, and was a descendant of Nagayoshi IKEDA, who was a younger biological brother of Terumasa IKEDA and the first lord of the Bitchu-Matsuyama clan. The Ibara-Ikeda clan continued to exist even after its main family, the Ikeda family of the Bitchu-Matsuyama clan, was abolished due to lack of an heir, and was issued Hatamoto-satsu.

A few of the Han-satsu or Hatamoto-satsu in Bitchu Province was often found written on the face value by Eisen-kanjo procedure. Eisen referred the Eiraku-tsuho coins (bronze coins struck in the Ming dynasty) that were used throughout the nation from the Muromachi period to the early Edo period when the currency system by the Edo bakufu was established. Use of the Eiraku-tsuho coins itself was prohibited by the Edo bakufu, but the name itself was used as an auxiliary monetary unit through the Edo period, with 1 kamon (1,000 mon) of Eisen set being equivalent to 1 ryo (a unit of currency) of gold. The Eisen-kanjo procedure itself was generally used, for example, by money exchangers, but it was a feature specific for this area in that the procedure was used for expressing the monetary worth of paper money.

Kyushu region

It is known that, in the Kyushu region, the Ogasawara clan in Tokieda of Buzen Province (present eastern part of Fukuoka Prefecture and northeastern part of Oita Prefecture), the Kinoshita clan in Tateishi, Bungo Province (present Oita Prefecture, excluding its northeastern part), and the Mera clan in Mera, Higo Province (present Kumamoto Prefecture and mountainous area in the southwestern part of Miyazaki Prefecture) issued Hatamoto-satsu.

Buzen and Bungo Provinces

Being a branch family of the lord family of the Nakatsu clan, the Tokieda-Ogasawara clan was a Hatamoto that had a territory that produced 5,000 koku of rice crop, centered on Tokieda of Buzen Province (present Shimo-Tokieda, Usa City, Oita Prefecture). The Hatamoto-satsu issued by the Tokieda-Ogasawara clan included the senme-satsu issued in 1826 from Tokieda-sanbutsukaisho (the product business promotion body in Tokieda) and that issued in 1858 from Tokieda-kanjosho (the organization handling financial and public affairs in Tokieda). The Tateishi-Kinoshita clan, a branch of the lord family of the Hiji clan, was given the kotaiyoriai-omoteoreishu status, with a 5,000 koku of rice crop centered on Tateishi, Bungo Province (present Tateishi, Yamaga-machi, Kitsuki City, Oita Prefecture). The Hatamoto-satsu issued by the Tateishi Kinoshita clan included the senme-satsu issued several times by kanjosho (the organization handling financial and public affairs) or others in 1825 or later.

The Hatamoto-satsu issued by the Tokieda-Ogasawara clan and by the Tateishi-Kinoshita clan included many on which the face value was expressed with senme value, as typically seen among the Han-satsu and Hatamoto-satsu issued in the northern part of Kyushu, including chigyo-chi. Senme-satsu was paper money with the following features: The face value was written in the unit of silver (monme, bu, or rin; each a monetary unit at that time) on it, but it was also written there that the money would be exchanged into zeni based on a certain gin (silver coin)-zeni exchange rate. It can be confirmed that senme-satsu itself was issued in Tango, Harima, and Iyo Provinces independently (at least they had no common boundaries geographically). However, some paper money issued by clans or Hatamoto in the northern part of Kyushu had a distinguishing feature not found in other areas, in which an exchange rate between gin (silver) coins and zeni coins was explicitly written on the surface (for example: 7-sen and 10-monme indicated that the coins of 70 mon should be given for 1 monme, and therefore, this paper money could be exchanged to coins of 700 mon).

Higo Province

The Mera clan was a descendant of the Kikuchi clan, a distinguished clan that supported the Southern Court (in Japan) in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (in Japan) and fled to the mountainous area of Kyushu, or more specifically, in Mt. Mera of Mera County, Higo Province, after being defeated in the war. The clan became acquainted with Ieyasu TOKUGAWA when Mt. Mera was designated as Mt. Takanosu, and picked by Ieyasu, after which they received kotaiyoriai-shu status (a family with the status equivalent of that of the Shishu). The clan built its residence in Ogawa, at the center of Mera of Higo Province (present Murasho, Nishimera Village, Koyu County, Miyazaki Prefecture). With their territory located in a mountain, no rice could grow, and therefore, their kokudaka (crop yield) amounted to zero. However, the clan earned income by converting lumber, kazoo (the tree from which washy paper was produced), tea, and shiitake mushroom into money or rice. The Hatamoto-satsu issued by the Mera clan included 500-mon, 100-mon or 48-mon Zeni-azukari-satsu (銭預札; paper money equivalent to zeni copper coins) issued by Okatte-za (御勝手座; an organization to undertake the paper money) in around 1862. The Mera clan had strong connections militarily, politically as well as economically, with adjacent clans that shared boundaries with its territory, such as the Hitoyoshi clan in Higo Province, clans in Hyuga Province, and the Satsuma clan. However, each of these three areas had own unique features in the expression of the face value (including gin [silver] coin-based, or zeni [copper or iron] coin-based) and the design of their Han-satsu. It is considered that, from the face value describing in zeni base and the design on the face, the Hatamoto-satsu issued by the Mera clan was deeply affected by the Han-satsu issued by clans in Hyuga Province.

[Original Japanese]