Jogan Gishiki (貞観儀式)

Jogan gishiki is a book of ceremonies that is believed to have been compiled during the Jogan era (Japan) during the early Heian period (book) (book of ceremony). Provided, however, that the title of all existent books is "Gishiki" and some people assert that this is the correct book title. The book consists of ten volumes.

Book title

The term "Gishiki Jogan" is cited in "Seiji yoryaku" (examples of politics in the Heian period) and the term "Jogan gishiki 10 volumes" is found in "Honcho hoka monjo mokuroku" (legal book-catalog during Heian-Japan). Throughout the medieval and early modern period, a book called "Gishiki" consisting of ten volumes existed and in the mid-Edo period, KADA no Azumamaro defined it, based on its content, as one of Sandai gishiki "Jogan gishiki." Since then, his view has been commonly accepted and Isao TOKORO etc. support it. On the other hand, Tei MORITA etc. asserted the official book title must be "Gishiki" arguing that the author of "Seiji yoryaku," compiled during the mid-Heian period, used "Gishiki Jogan" instead of "Jogan gishiki" in order to add the era name of "Jogan" in which the book was compiled while acknowledging the title of the book was "Gishiki" from the very beginning, and that the credibility of "Honcho hoka monjo mokuroku" is doubtful because it was written on the premise of the existence of Sandai gishiki whose existence is questioned at present and it listed Konin gishiki (ceremony in the manner of the Konin era) which, in reality, did not exist.

The year of compilation

It is considered that Jogan gishiki was compiled between 873 to 877 (the fifteenth to the nineteenth year of the Jogan era (the name of era was revised to Gangyo era during this year)) because the revision of Nosaki sanryo decided on January 18, 873 was reflected on its content. In the meantime, Kazushi ISHIZUKA asserts that the imperial decree issued on October 6, 913 was the order for compiling the draft of "Jogan gishiki" into the official one on the grounds that the terms created during the Shotai and Engi era, such as Hyogoryo (Bureau of Military Storehouses) which was integrated in the Shotai era, are found in the existent book of "Gishiki." According to the above view, there is a possibility that existing "Gishiki" was in fact "Engi Gishiki," but the above-mentioned decree is commonly regarded as the decree for compiling "Engishiki." Also, there is a possibility that the petty revision of words was made during the Engi era since changeable items such as Nosaki sanryo mentioned above remain unchanged, but it is commonly believed that the original of the existing "Gishiki" is the Gishiki (book) that was compiled during the Jogan era.


Existent "Gishiki" ("Jogan gishiki") consists of ten volumes/seventy-seven clauses and volume one to volume five are allotted for the explanation of principal ceremonies and rites, such as 'Kinensaigi' (a ceremony of praying for the harvest), 'Senso daijosai' (the imperial enthronement ritual) and 'Tenno sokuigi' (rite of the emperor's enthronement). In particular, 'Senso daijosai' stipulated in volume 2 to volume 4 is regarded as important as the authority of the rite of Senso daijosai. Annual events like 'rite of receiving the New Year's Felicitations to the emperor,' 'rite of the seventh Day of New Year' and 'rite of the Tango-no setsu on the fifth day of the fifth month' are stipulated in volumes six to volume eight. Ceremonies accompanying government affairs such as "Hiekigi" and other ad hoc rites are stipulated in volumes nine and ten.

[Original Japanese]