Sanji Kentai (三事兼帯)

The term Sanji kentai means concurrently assuming the positions of Goi no kurodo (Kurodo with the fifth rank), Benkan (officials of the Dajokan - Grand Council of State)) and Kebiishi no suke (assistant official of the Police and Judicial Chief). Most of such cases occurred when a person of Kurandonosuke (assistant official of kurodo) (who assumed the positions of Goi no kurodo and Kebiishi no suke concurrently) assumed the office of Benkan.

The first case occurred when FUJIWARA no Kiyotsura assumed three positions in 905. Cases were often seen where a person of Kurodo no to (Head Chamberlain)/Goi no kurodo concurrently assumed the position of Benkan or a person of Goi no kurodo/Rokui no kurodo (kurodo with the Sixth Rank) assumed the position of Kebiishi no suke. However, cases where a person assumed three official positions concurrently were seldom seen. As Kurodo who valeted the Emperor at court, Benkan in charge of administrative jobs at Dajokan and Kebiishi no suke responsible for judiciary/police/civil affairs in Heiankyo (Kyoto) were particularly important official positions with a heavy workload, it was impossible for an official to assume these three positions concurrently unless he had an excellent business ability.

In "Gonki" (The FUJIWARA no Yukinari's diary) dated January 7 of the first year of Kannin era (1017), FUJIWARA no Sukenari (founder of the Hino family) was recorded as 'Sanji kentai.'
After FUJIWARA no Tamefusa and TAIRA no Tokinori became Sanji kentai holder under Emperor Shirakawa in the late eleventh century, FUJIWARA no Akitaka/FUJIWARA no Akiyori (descendants of Tamefusa) as well as TAIRA no Sanechika/Noriie (descendants of Tokinori) became Sanji kentai holder in the wake of their forefathers. After the families of officials in charge of practical business became restricted to Kajuji-ryu (the Kanjuji line), the Hino family and Takamune-ryu Heishi (Taira clan of Takamune group) in the twelfth century, persons who became Sanji kentai holder also came to be limited to those who were the members of these three families (exceptions were FUJIWARA no Toshinori/Sadanori, sons of Shinzei). When the brothers of Tsunefusa YOSHIDA and Mitsunaga and Sadanaga KUJO became Sanji kentai holder in the late twelfth century, Tadachika NAKAYAMA wrote as follows.
Three brothers of Tsunefusa, Mitsunaga and Sadanaga became Sanji kentai holder.'
This is an unprecedented event and a great pleasure for the family' ("Sankaiki" - The Diary by Tadachika NAKAYAMA) dated eighteenth day, ninth month of the first year of Genryaku era). From the above, we can gather that Sanji kentai was regarded as an honor among officials in charge of practical jobs.

With the lowering in the age of becoming Sanji kentai holder as well as the shortening of terms in office became apparent during the Kamakura period, an extreme case occurred where a person became Sanji kentai holder at the age of nineteen and was in office for a month and Sanji kentai gradually became the one that didn't represent the actual situation. In the end, Sanji kentai became the superficial and symbolic one as the index to prove that a family was the direct descendant of a distinguished family (court noble).

[Original Japanese]