Ichijo Fuyutsune (一条冬経)

Born on May 20, 1652, and gone on October 27, 1705, Fuyutsune ICHIJO was Kugyo (a top court official) in the middle of the Edo period. Being the first aide to Emperor Reigen, Fuyutsune competed with Motohiro KONOE for power. He was called Uchisaki at an early age, and called Kaneteru in his later years. His rank and title in the Imperial Court reached Juichii (Junior First Rank), Kanpaku (Chief Adviser to the Emperor) and Sessho (Regent). His pseudonym was Enjoji. His father was Norisuke ICHIJO, and her mother was the daughter of Mitsumasa IKEDA who was the lord of the Bizen Province Okayama Domain and Sakone gon no shosho (Provisional Minor Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards). His legal wife was the daughter of Mitsusada TOKUGAWA who was the lord of the Kii Domain and Gon Dainagon (provisional chief councilor of state). He also had some concubines, such as the daughter of Nagatsugu MORI who was the lord of Tsuyama Domain. The daughter of Sangi (Royal Advisor) Tokiyuki YAMASHINA was his concubine, too.

Personal Profile

On May 20, 1652, he was born as a child of Norisuke ICHIJO who assumed Udaijin (Minister of the Right) and belonged to one of Gosekke (the five families of the Fujiwara clan whose members were eligible for the positions of Sessho and Kanpaku).

On May 1, 1660, he got the investiture of Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade), and on the next day, he underwent Genpuku (a coming-of-age ceremony for boys). On May 6, he was admitted to the court for the first time, and had an audience with Emperor Gosai. At that time, he was appointed to Sakone no shosho (Minor Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards) and he got Kinjiki Chokkyo (the emperor's authorization to use the color reserved for the nobility on their clothes). On January 24, 1661, he was promoted to Jushiinojo (Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade). On February 10, 1661, he assumed Sakone no chujo (Middle Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards), and on February 12, 1662, he became Gon Chunagon (provisional vice-councilor of state). On February 19, 1663, he rose to Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank) and Gon Dainagon. On February 4, 1667, he received imperial permission to wear a sword. On January 24, 1669, he rose to "Junii" (Junior Second Rank). On December 31, 1669, he additionally assumed Udaisho (Major Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards). On February 15, 1670, he assumed Umaryo gogen (Inspector of the Right Division of Bureau of Horses). On March 11, 1671, "Sanefusa TOKUDAIJI" resigned Naidaijin (Minister of the Center), so instead, Fuyutsune assumed Naidaijin on September 3 at the age of 21. On June 2, 1673, he rose to Shonii (Senior Second Rank), and on November 6, 1675, his position was transferred from Ukone no daisho (Udaisho) to Sakone no daisho (Major Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards). On September 30, 1676, he resigned from Sakone no daisho. On January 17, 1678, he was further promoted to Udaijin at the age of 26. In 1680, he was renamed Fuyutsune.

On March 26, 1682, Fusasuke TAKATSUKASA resigned from Kanpaku. Seen from the order of ranks in the Imperial Court, Emperor Reigen should appoint Motohiro KONOE to Kanpaku, but the emperor shunned Konoe, ignored the common practice, and appointed Udaijin Fuyutsuna to Juichii Kanpaku and Toshi choja (the head of the Fujiwara clan), which was an exceptional and forcible personnel change. After that, a behind-the-scenes political struggle began in the Imperial Court in the form of a face-off between the side of Emperor Reigen and Fuyutsuna ICHIJO and the side of Motohiro KONOE. On March 6, 1687, the Crown Prince Asahito (later Emperor Higashiyama) underwent Genpuku, and Fuyutsuna played kakan no yaku (a role to place a crown on the head of the imperial prince when he becomes an adult). On May 2, the position of Fuyutsune was transferred from Kanpaku to Sessho because Emperor Higashiyama who was about to ascend the throne was a child. However, the Retired Emperor Reigen began his rule, so a discord with the opposing Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) broke out, which heralded a conflict between the bakufu and the retired emperor. On May 16, 1689, the position of Fuyutsuna was returned from Sessho to Kanpaku as Emperor Higashiyama grew up, but on February 21, 1690, he was deprived of Kanpaku by Motohiro KONOE who conspired with the bakufu. After that, he rose to Juichii in 1694, and he changed his name to Kaneteru in 1698, around when he began to suffer from paralysis. He died in 1705. His family headship was transferred to his adopted child Kaneka ICHIJO (the real child of Fusasuke TAKATSUKASA).

He was known as a book collector, and also as a student of Shinto.

[Original Japanese]