Sangi (参議)

"Sangi" is one of the posts in the Daijokan (Grand Council of State), which is the highest organ in the Imperial Court organization for Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) in Japan. It is a post ranking below Chunagon (vice-councilor of state), and corresponds to Suke (assistant director) in the Shitokan (four classifications of bureaucrats' ranks). Its Chinese names are Saisho and Shoko. It means to participate in Imperial Court politics, and serves as the giseikan (top officials in the Daijokan) in Imperial Court politics.

Ritsuryo system

Those who were Sangi or higher and Sanmi (Third Rank) or higher were called kugyo (court noble), and Sangi was considered kugyo, but Sangi who served as Benkan (officials of the dajokan) and Kurodo no to (Head Chamberlain) were appreciated as practitioners. There are no imperial edicts or letters laying out the kani soto (corresponding relationship between court ranks of government officials and government posts) of Sangi, so there is no corresponding rank.
(Jugoinojo (Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade), Shikibu shoyu (Junior Assitant of the Ministry of Ceremonial) and Monjo hakase (professor of literature), SUGAWARA no Michizane felt that it was a problem that kani soto was not specified for Sangi, and reported to the Emperor on the need to specify kani soto, koroku, etc. in the provision of July 1, 882 'Kankebunso, Volume 9.' There is no record on whether or not there was a response to this, and therefore it is uncertain.)
Thus, neither gyo nor shu is added depending on the rank.
(For example, it is written Sangi Shonii (Senior Second Rank) or Sangi Jushiinoge (Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade).)
Depending on the rank, the family name, hereditary title, and first name was written in the order of full name followed by hereditary title for Shii (Fourth Rank) (for example, TAIRA no Kiyomori Ason), and family name-hereditary title-first name for Sanmi or higher (for example, TAIRA no Ason Kiyomori).

It was created on May 21, 702, when OTOMO no Yasumaro, AWATA no Mahito, TAKAMUKO no Maro, SHIMOTSUKENU no Komaro, and ONO no Kenu were allowed to participate in the government, and Sangi was established as an official post in 731. In 807, Sangi was temporarily abolished and Kansatsushi (inspector) was placed, but it was reintroduced in 810, and since then, the number appointed to the present post tend to be eight, thus it was also known as hachiza (eight seats). However, there is no trace of imperial edicts or letters being announced to lay out the number of regular personnel for Sangi, and the number varied with time. Additionally, from February 729 to August 731, and from March to April 806, Gon-sangi (temporary Sangi) was placed as temporary personnel, as well as Jun-sangi (associate Sangi) in June (intercalary month) 806. Under the Dokyo administration, Hosangi (monk Sangi) which was similar in rank as Sangi was established, and monks were assigned.

Meiji government

A post in the Meiji government established by 'oseifukko' (restoration of imperial rule). It was established as an important post in the Meiji government with the return of the Daijokan system in July 1869, and personnel were assigned from Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa, and Hizen Clans. Seiin (highest organ in the Daijokan organization system) was organized after the Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures), and after the political upheaval of the 6th year of Meiji, they concurrently served as the secretary of ministries. It was abolished in 1885, when the cabinet system was established.

[Original Japanese]