Takeda Katsuyori (武田勝頼)

Katsuyori TAKEDA was a busho (Japanese military commander) and a Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) in Kai Province from the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan) to Azuchi-Momoyama period. He was the twentieth family head of the Takeda clan. In some cases, he is considered to have been one of the twenty-four Generals of Takeda.

He was also known as Suwa Shiro Katsuyori because he succeeded the Suwa clan at first, or as Ina Shiro Katsuyori because he was the lord of Takato-jo Castle in Inatani (Ina valley), Shinano Province. He was also called Shiro TAKEDA or Takeda Shiro Katsuyori. His father Shingen petitioned Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA to grant an official rank and Henki (a portion of the name of a person in high rank, which is given to a retainer to show the subordination) to Katsuyori, but it was not materialized due to the pressure of Nobunaga ODA. Therefore, he had no formal official rank.


His father was Shingen TAKEDA. His mother was Goryonin SUWA, a daughter of Yorishige SUWA (the Sengoku period) and Shingen's concubine. His legal wife was Fujin TOYAMA, an adopted daughter of Nobunaga ODA. His second wives included Fujin HOJO, a daughter of Ujiyasu HOJO.

He was born as an illegitimate child of Shingen who had enlarged his territory to Shinano Province, and succeeded the Suwa clan, becoming the lord of Takato-jo Castle. When the Takeda clan's legal son Yoshinobu was disinherited due to Takeda Yoshinobu Incident, he became the heir, and in 1573, he took over as head of the family as the result of Shingen's death. He succeeded the policy of Shingen, who broke up Ko So Sun Sangoku Domei (tripartite alliance of Kai, Sagami and Suruga) because of a conflict with Echigo, invaded Suruga and put the strategy to conquer westward into action. He confronted Nobunaga ODA and Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, but suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Nagashino in 1575. After that, he rapidly lost his influence. Although he formed an alliance with Echigo and changed his diplomatic policies, he had no choice but to hedge his bets on Oda-Tokugawa camp and Gohojo clan in Sagami Province, which sparked unrest in his territory. In the last days of his administration, he tried to preserve his territory by moving Fuchu (provincial cities which consist of local governments as the core of the city) to Shinpu-jo Castle, but he failed because of Nobunaga ODA's invasion (subjugation of Takeda). On March 11, 1582, he committed suicide in Tenmoku-zan Mountain. This led to the fall of the Takeda clan.

From the early modern times to the modern times, Katsuyori received opposing evaluations because some people considered that he had brought about the fall of the Takeda clan, comparing him to Shingen who had been seen as a deity and a heroic figure while others gave him a favorable evaluation because they saw him as a tragic family head. In the research for the Takeda clan, Katsuyori was hardly ever an independent research object, but in recent years, researches into various objects including the diplomatic policies and the domestic affairs of Katsuyori's government, his biography are under way, as the result of the excavation and research of Shinpu-jo Castle.

From birth to becoming the heir of the Takeda clan

He was born as the fourth son of Harunobu TAKEDA. His birthplace and birth date are unknown. His mother was "Goryonin SUWA," a daughter of Yorishige SUWA, the feudal lord of Suwa in Shinano Province, who was in alliance with the Takeda clan from the last days of Nobutora TAKEDA to the early days of Harunobu (her real name is unknown, 乾福院殿). The Suwa clan was destroyed in 1542 because the alliance collapsed, and Goryonin SUWA was received as a concubine of Harunobu at his residential castle, Tsutsujigasaki-yashiki (Tsutsujigasaki Mansion) in Kofu district (entry of 1542, "Kohakusaiki" (a recorded diary on the history of the Sengoku period supposedly written by Masatake Komai).

It is considered that Katsuyori grew up in Tsutsujigasaki-yashiki (Tsutsujigasaki Mansion), living with his mother. Although "Kohakusaiki" (a recorded diary on the history of he Sengoku period supposedly written by Masatake Komai) has many articles about Yoshinobu (the heir of the Takeda family) and the second son Nobuchika (Ryuho), no information is found about his childhood including his menoto (a woman providing breast-feed to a highborn baby) and his guardian as there is no article about Katsuyori and Goryonin SUWA. "Koyo Gunkan" (record of the military exploits of the Takeda family, hereafter referred to as "Gunkan") describes the background of the birth of Katsuyori in detail, but the contents are questionable (according to Shunroku SHIBATSUJI). The Suwa clan was in alliance with Takeda but it was destroyed in the days of Shingen, and there was supposedly a strong opposition among the Takeda family to receiving Goryonin SUWA, the mother of Katsuyori, as a concubine. Goryonin SUWA died in 1555 (according to the inscription on the tombstone).

Beginning a full-scale invasion of Shinano, Shingen clashed with the Uesugi clan of Echigo, and in 1562, subjugation of Shinano came to the end of the first stage in the Battle of Kawanakajima. In ruling Shinano, Shingen had a policy of having his children adopted by the ancient clan to achieve conciliation, and Morinobu NISHINA, Katsuyori's younger paternal half-brother, similarly succeeded the Shinano Nishina clan, joining Shinzoku shu (a group which consisted of siblings and relatives). Katsuyori succeeded the family name of the Suwa family in July or August (June in old lunar calendar) in the same year, and changed his name to Suwa Shiro Katsuyori, by adopting the Suwa clan's tsuji (distinctive character used in the names of all people belonging to a single clan or lineage) "頼" (he did not succeed the Takeda clan's "信," which claims attention). According to "Gunkan," Katsuyori had eight vassals including Emonnojo ATOBE, and he joined the Shinzoku shu (a group which consisted of siblings and retainers) with Nobutoyo TAKEDA (the Kai-Takeda clan) and others.

Replacing Nobutomo AKIYAMA, the chamberlain, Katsuyori became the lord of Takato-jo Castle, and according to "Gunkan," Nobuharu BABA had the castle repaired for Katsuyori to enter. One theory states that the legendary strategist Kansuke YAMAMOTO was in charge of nawabari (castle plan; general term for the layout of a castle and its component structures). Even though no illustration of official duties are found, "Gunkan" states that he was "Ina gundai" (an intendant or administrator of Ina). Specific circumstances of Katsuyori's ruling of Takato territory are unknown as there are only three documents on the subject, but it is considered that the region functioned as the territory of branch castle with independent supremacy. In addition, the Buddhist service on the 16th anniversary of Goryonin SUWA's death held at Takato kenpuku-ji Temple, and dedication of bonsho (large temple bell) to Suwa Ninomiya ono-jinja Shrine in 1564 are part of his legacy.

His uijin (first battle) was the Siege of Minowa-jo Castle in Ueno Province (also known as the Siege of Matsuyama-jo Castle in Musashi Province or the Siege of Musashi Province). After that, he distinguished himself in the Siege of Minowa-jo Castle and the Siege of Kuragano-jo Castle in Ueno Province.

In 1565, according to "Gunkan," the vassals of Yoshinobu TAKEDA, his older paternal half-brother and the heir of the Takeda family, were executed for the conspiracy to assassinate Shingen, and Yoshinobu himself was confined (Yoshinobu incident, Yoshinobu died in 1567 in confinement). In November 1565, the wedding of Katsuyori and the adopted daughter of Nobunaga ODA of Owari was being arranged. Around this time, Shingen changed the traditional strategy to advance northward, carrying out the invasion of Shinano and Tokai region in alliance with the Oda family, and there was a conflict between some of his vassals and the group of Yoshinobu whose wife was the daughter of the Imagawa clan. In 1567, the heir Nobukatsu was born. Nobuchika UNNO, Katsuyori's second older brother, entered into priesthood because he was born blind, and Nobuyuki TAKEDA, his third older brother, died young. As the result, Shingen appointed Katsuyori as his successor, and March 1571, he was called back to Kofu, and his uncle Nobukado TAKEDA became the lord of Takato-jo Castle.

Succession to the position of family head

He accomplished military exploits in the Siege of Takiyama-jo Castle in Musashi Province by the Gohojo clan in 1569, in the Battle of Minasetoge stemming from the Siege of Odawara-jo Castle in Sagami Province, and in the battle for the suppression of Suruga Province in 1570.

In 1571, he moved from Takato-jo Castle to Tsutsujigasaki-yakata (Tsutsujigasaki Mansion) at Shingen's order. This virtually indicated that Shingen clarified that he had chosen Katsuyori as his successor.

In 1572, when Shingen started the strategy to conquer westward (There is a different version of the story, please refer to the Battle of Mikatagahara), he joined the battle as the commander of a troop, and accomplished military exploits again in the Battle of Mikatagahara in December by fighting against the Oda and Tokugawa allied forced and defeating them. Thus, he is said to have joined most of the large-scale battles in Shingen's later years and acquired military fame.

In May or June (April in old lunar calendar), 1573, he reverted to the Takeda family name, took over as head of the family, and became the twentieth family head of the Takeda clan because Shingen died of illness during the operation of advancing to the capital (Kyoto). However, due to Shingen's death, the operation of advancing to the capital (Kyoto) was set back and Katsuyori withdrew his troops to Kai, his home ground.

Counterblow by Oda and Tokugawa

Shingen's death allowed Nobunaga ODA and Ieyasu TOKUGAWA to get out of a predicament. Nobunaga exiled Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA, the Seii Taishogun of the Muromachi shogunate, who was the power broker in the anti-Nobunaga network, to Kawachi Province. After changing the name of the era to Tensho in the same year, he invaded Echizen Province and Omi Province, and destroyed Nagamasa ASAI and Yoshikage ASAKURA.
Sadayoshi OKUDAIRA and his son Nobumasa OKUDAIRA, the members of Yamaga sanpo shu (the Okudaira clan, the Suganuma clan (in Nagashino) and the Suganuma clan (in Tamine)) in sankanbu (mountain-ringed region) of Mikawa Province had followed the Takeda clan, but Ieyasu made them switch sides and the Oda and Tokugawa allied forces, which had been on the defensive, started to strike back

To counter this, Katsuyori aggressively sent his troops outside the province for the purpose of gaining greater power than his father. In March 1574, he invaded the Oda territory in Higashi (east) Mino Province and took Akechi-jo Castle by storm. Nobunaga tried to go to Akechi-jo Castle with his heir Nobutada ODA for rear guard (reinforcement), but he withdrew to Gifu because Katsuyori had already taken Akechi-jo Castle by storm.

In June or July (June in old lunar calendar) 1574, he virtually suppressed Higashi Totomi by invading the Tokugawa territory, taking control of Takatenjin-jo Castle, the strong fortress, which Shingen could not take control of, and removing Nobuoki OGASAWARA, the general of the guards of the castle, from power (the Battle of Takatenjin-jo Castle).

The Battle of Nagashino

In 1575, Katsuyori invaded Mikawa Province, leading 15,000 soldiers (8,000 to 10,000 soldiers, according to one theory) to subdue Sadayoshi OKUDAIRA and his son Nobumasa, who had switched sides to Ieyasu TOKUGAWA in the previous year. In June or July (May in old lunar calendar), he started to attack Nagashino-jo Castle where Nobumasa OKUDAIRA barricaded himself in. However, as Nagashino-jo Castle where the Okudaira group was putting up a strong battle resisted the fierce attack of the Takeda forces, it took longer for Katsuyori to capture Nagashino-jo Castle than he had expected. And finally, the Oda and Tokugawa allied forces of approximately 38,000 (Note: The Oda forces of 12,000 and the Tokugawa forces of 4,000, according to one theory) reached Nagashino (Shitaragahara), and started to build a camp fortress including horse-blocking fences. To counter this, Katsuyori advanced to Shitaragahara with the main force of 12,000 (6,000, according to one theory) to confront the Oda and Tokugawa allied forces, leaving 3,000 soldiers to keep Nagashino-jo Castle under control. In those days, warriors in Koshu were said to be strong and they had a victory in a minor battle the day before the final battle of Nagashino, which raised their morale. But Shingen's advisors who felt that it was no longer an open battle but rather a siege (in a siege, troop strength makes a difference) proposed withdrawal. Yet, Katsuyori chose to have a final battle with Oda and Tokugawa, and the battle was to start early in the morning of July 10.

On July 10, the battle went on from six o'clock in the morning till two o'clock in the afternoon. Takeda forces, smaller in number, fought a good fight but soldiers including Masakage YAMAGATA and Masatsugu TSUCHIYA fell victim to the defense troops of the allied forces. After losing the aggressive power, the Takeda forces suffered a total breakdown and lost one capable officer after another including Nobuharu BABA, Masatoyo NAITO, Masatane NARA, Nobutsuna SANADA, and his brother Masateru SANADA while taking to flight. In addition, in the Siege of Tobinosu fort leading up to the final battle, Nobuzane KAWAKUBO, the shusho (commander-in-chief), Moritomo SAEGUSA and others died, and immediately after that, in the continued battle near Nagashino-jo Castle, Masazumi KOSAKA died.

It is said that in this defeat, more than 10,000 soldiers of Takeda forces were killed or injured (according to one theory, 1,000 of the Takeda forces and 600 of the Oda and Tokugawa allied forces). According to one theory, Katsuyori withdrew miserably, protected by only several soldiers on horseback.

Otate War

Counterattack by Nobunaga ODA and Ieyasu TOKUGAWA became more aggressive now that the Takeda forces had suffered a defeat in the Battle of Nagashino, losing many powerful military commanders and causing a disturbance in the territory. After the Battle of Nagashino, when Takeda was barred from Mikawa, the Oda forces having Nobunaga's heir Nobutada who had Nobunaga's order, as the supreme commander, took control of Iwamura-jo Castle in Higashi Mino Province and Katsuyori lost Nobutomo AKIYAMA, the general of the guards of the castle. In Totomi Province as well, Ieyasu removed Nobushige YODA from power and regained control of Futamata-jo Castle.

In response, Katsuyori aimed to reconstruct the Takeda territory. In 1577, he formed an alliance with Kenshin UESUGI who was an old enemy during the era of Shingen. In the same year, he received Ujimasa HOJO's sister as his second wife (Fujin TOYAMA died after the birth of Nobukatsu) to strengthen the Koso Alliance (an alliance between the Takeda clan in the Kai Province and the Hojo clan in Sagami Province).

In 1578, when Kenshin UESUGI died of illness in Echigo, Otate War broke out between the two adopted sons of Kenshin, Kagetora UESUGI (formerly Saburo HOJO) and Kagekatsu UESUGI (Kenshin's nephew) over the succession to family headship. Katsuyori dispatched troops to Echigo in an attempt to intervene at the request for support from Kagetora, who was a younger brother of Ujimasa HOJO (a distant relative, according to one theory) and had been adopted out to Uesugi from Hojo. But he changed his diplomatic policies and shifted to support Kagekatsu (the Koetsu Alliance (an alliance between the Takeda clan in Kai Province and the Uesugi clan in Echigo Province)) by marrying his daughter Kikuhime off to Kagekatsu.

The Takeda family made peace with Kagekatsu and left Echigo, which resulted in Kagekatsu's victory in the war, and Kagetora committed suicide,
Through the formation of the Koetsu Alliance (an alliance between the Takeda clan in Kai Province and the Uesugi clan in Echigo Province), Kagekatsu acquired Numata territory in Higashi Ueno, while it caused the dissolution of the Koso Alliance (an alliance between the Takeda clan in the Kai Province and the Hojo clan in Sagami Province). As a result, Katsuyori formed an allegiance with the Satake clan in Hitachi Province because he clashed with Oda in the west and at the same time needed a countermeasure against Hojo (the Kosa Allegiance (an allegiance between the Takeda clan in Kai Province and the Satake clan in Hitachi Province)). In addition, he found himself in a pincer attack by Tokugawa and Hojo in Suruga.

It is said that the lords in Togoku (the eastern part of Japan, particularly the Kanto region) criticized Katsuyori, saying "Katsuyori was lost in his immense ambition this time and took a wrong way of following through his sense of duty" ("Odawara hojo ki" (the diary of he Odawara hojo clan)). After the fall of the Takeda family, Rakushu became popular among the general public, which read "It is ruthless to destroy a province, being blinded by gold when his prosperity is not permanent as everything else."

Fall of the Takeda family

In 1581, Takatenjin-jo Castle ran into difficulty due to the attack by the Tokugawa forces (the Battle of Takatenjin-jo Castle), and Katsuyori could no longer deliver reinforcements. The surrender of Takatenjin-jo Castle damaged the dignity of the Takeda family and Kokujin-shu (local samurais) were highly disturbed. From then on, there were more cases of conspiracy from Ota and Tokugawa, and Ichimonshu (clansman) at odds with the Takeda family and opportunistic Kokujin (local samurais) started to rise in rebellion.

To prepare for the Oda and Tokugawa allied forces that would carry out an attack in the near future, Katsuyori built Shinpujo-Castle in Nirasaki which was stronger than Tsutsujigasaki-yakata (Tsutsujigasaki Mansion) for the purpose of solidifying the defense and reorganizing Takeda's army. However, he had to levy war funds on Kokujin-shu (local samurais) under him for that purpose, and ironically it ended up in touching off a rebellion. Some people attribute the rebellion of Kokujin-shu to Katsuyori's policies aiming for centralization.

In March or April (February in old lunar calendar) 1582, Yoshimasa KISO, Shingen's adopted son-in-law and a maternal relative, switched sides to Nobunaga ODA because he was unhappy about the increased burden for the construction of Shipu-jo Castle. Katsuyori was enraged at the maternal relative Yoshimasa KISO's treason, and immediately sent out troops for subjugation of Kiso. However, snow prevented the troops from moving ahead and they were at the mercy of the Kiso forces, who knew the geography of the area well. In the meantime, Nobutada ODA invaded from Ina, Nagachika KANAMORI from Hida Province, Ieyasu TOKUGAWA from Suruga Province and Ujinao HOJO from Kanto and Izu Province into Takeda territory (Subjugation of Takeda).

The Takeda forces could hot withstand the attack systematically. Nobukado TAKEDA, Katsuyori's uncle, fled to Kai, deserting Oshima-jo Castle, his residence, which was a pivot of the defensive battle against Oda and Tokugawa, and at Ina-jo Castle in Shinano, as the Oda forces were approaching, the chief retainer ousted Nobuuji SHIMOJO, the lord of the castle, and received the Oda forces. Nobumine OGASAWARA, the lord of Matsuo-jo Castle in Shinano, Nobushige ASHIDA, the lord of Tanaka-jo Castle in Suruga Province, and others surrendered without fighting before the invasion of the Oda and Tokugawa allied forces. Furthermore, even Nobukimi ANAYAMA, the heavy weight of the Takeda family gave up on Katsuyori and pledged to yield allegiance to Nobunaga ODA through Ieyasu TOKUGAWA. Due to this, Kokujin-shu (local samurais) who belonged to the Takeda clan was very disturbed.

The officers and men who received this information came to distrust other human beings, and the ones that had became skeptical deserted Katsuyori and ran off continuously whenever they had a chance. Takato-jo Castle where Morinobu NISHINA, Katsuyori's younger brother took refuge was the only one that resisted at all. Yoritoyo SUWA, a member of the SUWA family that Katsuyori' mother had come from was said to have been" ill-treated by Katsuyori," but he would not listen to the opinions of his vassals who were trying to capitalize on the subjugation of Takeda to restore the Suwa family, and died in the Battle of Toriitoge.

In April or May (March in old lunar calendar) in the same year, Katsuyori set fire on the unfinished Shinpu-jo Castle and ran away. Nobushige OYAMADA, a powerful Kokujin (local samurai) and Ichimonshu (clansman) of Kai Province, and Masayuki SANADA, Kokujin of Shinano Province announced that they would accept Katsuyori. Katsuyori chose Iwadono-jo Castle, the residential castle of Nobushige OYAMADA, Kokujin of Kai Province because it was in Takeda family' domain (According to one theory, the residential castle of the Oyamada clan was Tanimura-jo Castle and Iwaki-jo Castle located in the territory of the Oyamada family was under the direct control of the Takeda family). But Nobushige who had changed his policy surrendered to Nobunaga ODA, and Katsuyori was hemmed in. Chased by Kazumasu TAKIGAWA's pursuer with no place to run to, Katsuyori's party headed to Tenmoku-zan Mountain, a place remembered in connection with the Takeda clan.

However, he was captured on the way in Tano, and committed suicide with his heir Nobukatsu and his legal wife Fujin HOJO (Subjugation of Takeda). He was 37 years old. With his death, the Kai-Takeda clan, a family of pedigree with a history of 450 years fell. Later on, Ieyasu TOKUGAWA had Keitoku-in Temple built as a family temple, where Bodhi is enshrined with Nobukatsu, the heir and Fujin HOJO, the legal wife.

The Takeda family that was restored after the Edo period was the genealogy of Nobuchika UNNO (Ryoho), Katsuyori's second older brother who had entered into priesthood due to his blindness.

Death haiku (Japanese poem)

"The moon, slightly clouded, was hazy, but as it breaks through the thinning clouds, it looks as if it were heading to the Western Pure Land"

Documents during the era of Katsuyori

Katsuyori who took over the enlarged territory of the era of Shingen held the office for a short time but the amount of the remaining documents is second to those of the era of Shingen. Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period) Takeda clan's license with a seal was created in the era of Nobutora, and during the era of Harunobu (Shingen) license with a read seal with a dragon engraved was created and established as a family symbol. In the late era of Shingen, seals for different purposes, such as "post horse" and "ship," were used.

The documents issued during the era of Katsuyori followed the system of the Shingen era, but it is pointed out that the ratio of license with a red seal with a dragon engraved was high. This backs up the content of "Koyo Gunkan," which states that 800 pieces of paper for license with a red seal with a dragon engraved were prepared when Shingen died in 1574. License with a red seal with a dragon engraved carrying "Harunobu" inmon (words or symbols engraved on the seal) was used till 1580. In 1574 the year Shingen died and in 1576 when his funeral was held, many documents were issued for joint recognition and guarantee by the shogunate of ownership of the inherited estate of a samurai who pledged allegiance to it (in the Kamakura and the early Muromachi periods), and in 1580, many documents related military service were issued as the conflict with Kitashiro and Tokugawa intensified as the result of the Koetsu Alliance (an alliance between the Takeda clan in Kai and the Uesugi clan in Echigo Province).

At the end of 1576, license with a red seal with a lion engraved was created. This is said to have been created with the intention of rebuilding the territory system in the aftermath of the defeat in the Battle of Nagashino in June or July (May in old lunar calendar) 1575, and it was used for various official service and requisition of votive offerings. In addition, in the era of Katsuyori, more family documents were issued because ruling of branch castle territory became established, and the lords of branch castles used their own seals.

Anecdotes and Strange Stories

Succession of the Takeda Family

One story has a different explanation as follows: originally, his uncle Nobukado TAKEDA was to be the successor, but that would be unacceptable for Katsuyori, and so Shingen and Nobukado discussed and decided that Nobukado would adopt Katsuyori's son Nobukatsu TAKEDA and move Katsuyori to Tsutsujigasaki-yakata (Tsutsujigasaki Mansion), and when Shingen died of illness, Nobukatsu succeeded him. It is said that although Nobukado should have received treatment suitable for him as Katsuyori's adoptive father in this case, Katsuyori, unaware of the circumstances, treated him as one of the vassals, and this caused the estrangement of the family and vassals who had been against Katsuyori's succession.

The Battle of Nagashino

As preciously mentioned, the morale of the Takeda forces was high, but Katsuyori wrote in his letter addressed to Mitsukata NAGASAKA (Chokansai) in the rearguard position "Some men fear the battle this time," indicating that the Takeda family was not necessarily optimistic. This letter included statements to the effect that "you don't need to worry," or "the enemy is confined,"which raised the question about Katsuyori's excessive self-confidence, but when we consider that this letter was written by the head of Daimyo family (feudal lord family) in the battlefield to a vassal in the rearguard position, we can't take the statements at face value. Rather, we can assume that it was a letter to dispel the vassal's apprehension.

Some people doubt whether it was possible for Katsuyori to act arbitrarily on his own authority and decided to start the battle. There is also an opinion that the decision to start the battle was made by consensus.

While the Takeda forces suffered crushing defeat, Shinzoku-shu (a group which consisted of siblings and retainers) including Katsuyori's uncle Nobukatsu TAKEDA and his cousin Nobukimi ANAYAMA were among the first to leave the final battlefield of Shitaragahara, preserving the troops on hand to a degree.

Otate War

It is said that the Takeda family switched their support to Kagekatsu UESUGI due to the following differences in the terms they were offered in exchange for their support: Kagetora UESUGI wanted the Takeda family to cede the northern Shinano area and the Kozuke Numata area to him in exchange for his entering into an alliance with them, but Kagekatsu offered to pay 20,000 ryo in gold to the Takeda family, who were in need of war funds (according to "Koyogunkan"), and turn over Numata-jo Castle in Kozuke Province to them if they entered into an alliance (virtually a vassalage) with him. The Takeda family's haphazard egoism is considered to have brought about the underlying cause of the fall, but on the other hand, some people think that there was no option because even if Kagekatsu succeeded the Uesugi clan, the Takeda territory was in danger of a pincer attack from south and north by the Hojo forces in the future.

The diplomatic policies that antagonized Hojo as well as Oda and Tokugawa is described to be a fatal misstep in terms of results (Shunroku SHIBATSUJI and others). However, according to one opinion, if Kagetora won the battle, Kagekatsu would be surrounded by the Hojo forces and pro-Hojo forces in a crescentic shape, and therefore it was not a mistake to form alliance with Kagekatsu. There is an anecdote that Katsusuke ATOBE and Mitsukata NAGASAKA received bribe when they made peace with Kabekatsu, but since Nobutoyo TAKEDA (the Kai-Takeda clan) of Shinano area was in charge of the negotiations with Kagekatsu, we cannot deny that this is a myth.

Kagekatsu had an heir Nobukatsu, but he died with his father in 1582. Although he had daughters, the details on them are unavailable. One of his daughters Sada-hime (Princess Sada) survived as Shingen's daughter Princess Matsu took her to Hachioji in Musashi Province together with Kogu-hime (Princess Kogu), a daughter of Nobushige OYAMADA, daughters of Morinobu NISHINA and others, where she was raised by Princess Matsu. Later, she became the legal wife of Yoshihisa MIYAHARA, Koke hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu, who were in a privileged family under Tokugawa Shogunate) of the Ashikaga family (Ashikaga Shogunate house) line, and gave birth to the heir Harukatsu MIYAHARA. Her ancestors lasted till the end of Edo period as the Edo Hatamoto Miyahara clan.

[Original Japanese]