Tanba Province (丹波国)

List of the Provinces of Japan > San'indo > Tanba

Tanba Province was one of the old provinces of Japan, located in San'indo. It covered the middle part of the present Kyoto prefecture, the east end of the present Hyogo prefecture, part of the present Takatsuki city in Osaka prefecture, and part of Toyono town, Toyono District in Osaka prefecture. Together with Tango Province, it was sometimes called "Tanshu."
In Engi-shiki, it was designated as "Kunitsukasakoku" and "Kinkoku (provinces near the capital)",

Tanba was called "Taniwa" at first, and was formerly written "田庭/谷端/旦波." It is said that this area was brought under the control of the Yamato dynasty through the victories of Shido Shogun ("the Four Legendary Generals").

Because there seems to have been a woman named Tanba as a consort to an emperor, it appears that the name "Tanba" has existed since ancient times. When Tanba Province was formed in the seventh century, its territory spanned from the middle and north areas of the present Kyoto prefecture to the east end of the north and middle areas of the present Hyogo prefecture. At that time, the present Tango and Tajima were also included in Tanba. Nowadays some people call the three of them "The Three Tans" (San-tan).

Although the date is unknown, at some point the north-west area separated off as Tajima Province, and after that, five districts in north separated as Tango Province on April 3, 713, establishing boundaries that would last long after.

Basically, there are three big basins having different rivers; the Kameoka Basin, the Yura (Fukuchiyama) Basin and the Sasayama Basin, separated from each other by mountains. For this reason, Tanba was harder to unite as one province than other provinces like Kai, Owari and Tosa, and that made the history of Tanba complicated. As for regional characteristics, the Nantan (Kuchitanba) area with Kameoka and Sonobe was closely linked to Yamashiro and Settsu Provinces, the Chutan area with Fukuchiyama and Ayabe to Tango and Tajima Provinces, and the Hyogo Tanba area with Sasayama, and Hikami to Tajima, Settsu and Harima Provinces.

Since ancient times, authorities have regarded Tanba as an important area due to its geographic situation as one of the entrances to Kyoto, so Tanba was, just like Harima and Yamato provinces, under control of the Rokuhara Tandai in the Kamakura period and the Kyoto Shoshidai in the Edo period. All the more because of this, Tanba became involved in the conflicts and wars of the capital as soon as they broke out. It was also the stage for some big upheavals in Japanese history, for example, when Takauji ASHIKAGA raised his army in Shinomura (now Shino-cho in Kameoka city) at the end of the Kamakura period, and in the Azuchi-momoyama period, when Mitsuhide AKECHI, the lord of Kameyama Castle, probably following such an example, started the Incident at Honno-ji. Though the story is less famous, in the Sengoku period, the Hatano clan at Yakami Castle united the other clans in Tanba and advanced into surrounding provinces like Yamashiro.

In Edo period, though there were not any daimyo who governed the whole province, instead there were seven "domains" (han) in the province; Tanba-Kameyama, Sonobe, Ayabe, Yamaga, Sasayama (Yakami), Tanba-Kaibara, and Fukuchiyama Domain. As for Tanba-Kameyama and Sasayama domains in particular, it shows how the Tokugawa shogunate regarded them as important that "Fudai daimyo" like Matsudaira and Aoyama were often transferred there, and that governors there often served as Roju, Jisha-bugyo, the Kyoto Shoshidai and Osakajodai.

During the Meiji Restoration, partisans of the Emperor formed the Yamaguni-tai in Yamagunigou, Kitakuwada District (the present Keihoku, Ukyo-ward, Kyoto city) and the Yumiya-tai in Umajimura, Minamikuwada District, following San'indo Chinbu Sotoku Kinmochi SAIONJI from one place to another to fight. At that time, Kojuro NAKAGAWA, who was the son of a Yumiya-tai member and later established Ritsumeikan University, met Saionji.

On December 19, 1871, Kuwada, Funai and Ikaruga Districts were joined to Kyoto prefecture, and Amada, Hikami and Taki Districts became part of Toyooka Prefecture. Furthermore, on August 21, 1876, in the second prefectural consolidation, Toyooka Prefecture was dissolved, and Amada District was annexed to Kyoto Prefecture while Hikami and Taki Districts were annexed to Hyogo prefecture. After that, on April 1,1958, in the municipal consolidation, Kashida-mura in Minamikuwada District, Kyoto prefecture was annexed to Takatsuki city, Osaka prefecture, and Maki and Terada areas in Nishibetsuin-mura, Kameoka city, Kyoto prefecture became part of Toyono town, Toyono District, Osaka prefecture.

Kokufu, Ichinomiya, etc. The Kokufu was placed in Kuwada District, and there are various theories about its location: that it was at the Chiyokawa site in the present Kameoka city, or at the present Yagi-cho Yaga in Nantan city (the former Yagi-cho Yaga in Funai District) or at Miyake-cho in Kameoka city (there is another theory that it was a Kokuga), but the precise location is still unclear.

In Engi-shiki Jinmyo-cho, there are four taisha with five gods enshrined and sixty-five shosha with sixty six gods enshrined, sixty-nine shrines with seventy-one gods enshrined in total.
All of the taisha mentioned above are Myojin Taisha, such as:

Izumo-jinja Shrine in Kuwada District (The present Izumo-daijingu Shrine, Kameoka city, Kyoto)
Ogawatsuki-jinja Shrine in Kuwada District (Kameoka city, Kyoto)
Make-jinja Shrine(麻気神社) in Funai District (The present Make (摩気) - jinja Shrine, Nantan city, Kyoto)
Kushiiwamado-jinja Shrine (two gods enshrined) in Taki District (Sasayama city, Hyogo)

Ichinomiya, the first shrine, was Izumo-jinja Shrine (Izumo-daijingu Shrine), and there was no second shrine ("Ninomiya"), or any shrines below that. The Soja seems to be a So-jinja shrine in Yagi-cho, Funai District in Kyoto prefecture (the present Nantan city).

Kamakura Shogunate
1221-1222 Tokifusa HOJO
1232-1277 Tokimori HOJO
1277-1284 Tokikuni HOJO
1306-1333 The person in charge of Rokuhara Tandai Minamikata, served simultaneously as Shugo.
Muromachi Shogunate
1336-1343 Yoriaki NIKKI
1343-1351 Tokiuji YAMANA
1351-1352 Yoriaki NIKKI
1352-1353 KO no Moroakira
1354-1359 Yoriaki NIKKI
1359-1360 Yorinatsu NIKKI
1360-1363 Yoshitada NIKKI
1363- Tadafuyu ASHIKAGA
1364-1371 Tokiuji YAMANA
1371-1391 Ujikiyo YAMANA
1392-1397 Yorimoto HOSOKAWA
1397-1426 Mitsumoto HOSOKAWA
1426-1429 Mochimoto HOSOKAWA
1429-1442 Mochiyuki HOSOKAWA
1442-1473 Katsumoto HOSOKAWA
1473-1506 Masamoto HOSOKAWA
1506-1507 Sumiyuki HOSOKAWA
1507-1508 Sumimoto HOSOKAWA
1508-1520 Takakuni HOSOKAWA
1520- Sumimoto HOSOKAWA
1520-1525 Takakuni HOSOKAWA
1525- Tanekuni HOSOKAWA
1525-1531 Takakuni HOSOKAWA
1532-1552 Harumoto HOSOKAWA
1552-1563 Ujitsuna HOSOKAWA

Kuwada District (has been divided into Kitakuwada and Minamikuwada Districts since 1879)
Kitakuwada District (Keihoku, Ukyo-ward and Hirogawara, Sakyo-ward in Kyoto city, Miyama town, Nantan city and Kamiyoshi, Yagi-cho in Kyoto prefecture)
Minamikuwada District (Kameoka city in Kyoto prefecture, Kashida in Takatsuki city, Osaka prefecture, Maki and Terada in Toyono town, Toyono District, Osaka prefecture)
Funai District (Kyo-Tanba town, the part of Hiyoshi-cho in Nantan city, Kyoto prefecture, Sonobe-cho and Yagi-cho except the former Kamiyoshi -mura in Kitakuwada District, which was annexed in 1955)
Ikaruga District (Ayabe city, old Saga-mura in Fukuchiyama city)
Taki District (Sasayama city)
Hikami District (Tanba city)
Amada District (A part of Fukuchiyama city except the former Saga-mura in Ikaruga District, the former Kumohara-mura in Yosa District(which has been joined to Amada District since 1902) and the former Oe-cho in Kasa District.)

Administrative Nomenclature

1. In Kyoto prefecture
Nantan or Kuchitan (all part of Tanba), Kameoka city, Nantan city (including the former Sonobe-cho, Yagi-cho, Hiyoshi-cho in Funai District and Miyama-cho in Kitakuwada District) and Funai District.
Chutan (the area extends over Tanba and Tango), Fukuchiyama city, Ayabe city and Maizuru city (the former Amada, Ikaruga and Kasa Districts.)

2. In Hyogo Prefecture
Tanba (Hyogo-Tanba) Tanba city, Sasayama city

Kyoto Tanba/Hyogo Tanba
Hyogo Tanba, with Sasayama and Tanba cities, makes up in population and area about 20% of the Tanba region, but Kyoto Tanba, with cities such as Kameoka, Nantan, Ayabe, Fukuchiyama and Kyotanba town in Funai District, is much bigger.

The reason why Tanba is divided into "Hyogo Tanba" and "Kyoto Tanba" is that it extends into both prefectures according to the present administrative divisions.

In the first place, Tanba, Tajima and Tango were divided up into two prefectures by people like Toshimichi OKUBO in the Meiji government who wanted to strengthen centralized control, ignoring their regional similarities. Except Kameoka city, the former Sonobe-cho and Yagi-cho in the Funai District, these areas were far from the capitals of each prefecture, and were not considered important by the national government, and the population grew smaller and smaller during the period of high economic growth.

Furthermore, for 5 years from November 2, 1871 to August 21, 1876, while Kuwada, Ikaruga and Funai Districts and Yamashiro province were part of Kyoto prefecture, Hikami, Taki and Amada Districts, Tajima and Tango provinces were part of Toyooka prefecture. It was the proposal of Mr. Tsutomu SAKURAI of the former Izushi Domain that Toyooka prefecture be divided up into two areas, annexing Amada District and Tango to Kyoto while annexing Hikami and Taki Districts and Tajima to Hyogo, but he seems to have suggested consolidating Toyooka prefecture and Shikama prefecture (Harima province) at first.

In November 2004, as the result of the consolidation, the former Hikami District announced itself as Tanba city over the opposition of the surrounding areas, although it was the whole former Tanba region that made the name known widely, and not only Sasayama city, which was proud of itself as the city that established some famous brands like "Tanba kuromame (black soybean)", "Tanba matsutake (mushroom)", etc. (from Kobe shinbun, July 17, 2003, etc.), but also the mayor of Ayabe city in Kyoto opposed it (from Kyoto shinbun, July 5, 2003). At that time, there was a Tanba town in Kyoto, though there was no legal issue of competition, due to the difference between town and city, and the problem itself disappeared when Tanba town consolidated with the surrounding towns and renamed itself Kyotanba town on October 11, 2005.

Tanba and Tango/Tajima
Tanba and Tango together are called "Ryo-Tan" (the two "Tan"s), Tanba and Tajima are called "Tan-Tan," and Tanba, Tango and Tajima are called "San-Tan" (the three "Tan"s) all together.
Some people say that the 'Yaku-yoke' festival in Kaibara is the biggest festival in San-Tan. (Yaku-yoke means driving away evil spirits")

Sometimes "Tan-Tan" also means "Tango and Tajima."

[Original Japanese]