Gyonen (凝然)

Gyonen (March 30, 1240 - September 26, 1321) was a learned priest pursuing his studies at Todai-ji Temple who lived during the late Kamakura period. His priestly name was Jikanbo. He was born in Iyo Province.

He studied under Ensho and received tsujukai (a religious precept for both Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism) from Ensho in Kaidan-in at Todai-ji Temple. Also, Gyonen learned Kegon (the thought that virtues are correctly provided due to training and performing acts of charity) from Sosho, Ritsu (vinaya) from Shogen, Shingon Esoteric Buddhism from Shoshu and Shinku (in the Kamakura period), and the doctrine of Jodo Buddhism from Chosai, all of which made him an erudite priest. Especially, Gyonen studied Kegon and gave lectures on it in various places. He became the successor to Ensho and lived in Kaidan-in at Todai-ji Temple, supervising many temples including Horyu-ji Temple and Toshodai-ji Temple.

[Original Japanese]