Conquest of Kishu (紀州征伐)

The words "Kishu Seibatsu" or "Kishu-zeme" refer to the conquest of Kii Province by Nobunaga ODA and Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI in the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (in the Azuchi-Momoyama period). It generally refers to the attack on Saiga by Nobunaga in 1577 and the capture of Kii by Hideyoshi in 1585. This article, however, also refers to the attack on the Koyasan Temple by Nobunaga from 1581 to 1582.

For Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, the war in Kii did not merely mean the conquest of one region. It was because Kii was the place where the powers such as temples and kuni ikki (uprising in a province) which opposed the idea of central government topped by tenkabito (person becoming the ruler of the country) had ruled. Not only the guns of Negoro and Saiga but also the idea itself which ikki, temples and shrines embodied was a threat against tenkabito.

The province which embodied medieval times, Kii
According to the words of Luis FROIS, the people in Kii Province in the latter part of the 16th century had a strong belief in Shinto and Buddhism, and all of the four or five religions were 'big existences like a republic,' which was not destroyed by any war. Frois pointed out the Koyasan Temple, the Kokawa-dera Temple, the Negoro-ji Temple and Saiga shu (Ikko groups) as the names of so-called religious republics. Although Frois did not mention it, it seems that the fifth republic was Kumano Sanzan (three major shrines, Kumano-Hongu-Taisha, Kumano-Hayatama-Taisha and Kumano-Nachi-Taisha). As the word "republic" shows, these temple and shrine powers and sokoku ikki (riot of the whole province) built autonomy with high economic and military powers. Even in the middle of the Muromachi period, the Hatakeyama clan, who was Shugo (provincial constable), could not control Kii Province without cooperation of temple and shrine powers.

The powers of samurai in Kii included not only the Hatakeyama clan, who were Shugo, but also Kokujin-shu (local samurai) such as the Yukawa, Yamamoto and Aisu clans. In the Muromachi period, these Kokujin-shu were separated into those who were hikan (low-level bureaucrat) of the Hatakeyama clan (such as Sumida, Ataka and Koyama clans) and the others who were independent from the Hatakeyama clan as hokoshu (the shogunal military guard) under the direct control of the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) (such as Yukawa, Tamaki and Yamamoto clans).

During the Muromachi period, the Hatakeyama clan promoted the domination of Kii Province (Shugo-ryogoku system [the system that a Shugo dominates a manor]), although it was forced to compromise with temple and shrine powers as mentioned above. Around the Onin War, hokoshu such as the Yukawa clan increasingly joined the internal insurrection of the Hatakeyama clan and changed into a position supporting Shugo's power, accepted with the military mobilization of the Hatakeyama clan (the Battle of Kyoko-ji Temple and so on). On the other hand, the split and conflicts among the Hatakeyama clan had lasted for a long time after the latter part of the 15th century, and there were some strong temple and shrine powers, so that any samurai powers could not grow up to Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period) who controlled the whole Kii Province. Kokujin-shu admitted the military mobilization right of the Hatakeyama clan as Shugo, but they were independent in the management of their territories.

Keidai toshi (temple city), a place of extraterritoriality
In the medieval times, temples and shrines were sanctuaries into which neither Imperial Court nor bakufu could enter. In the internal area of temples and shrines, the police authority of political power was not admitted (refer to the articles on Kendan Funyu [refusal of criminal investigation of the Political power], Funyu no Ken [the right to keep the tax agents from entering the property] or Shugo Funyu [another name of shugoshi funyu, privilege of excluding agents of the shugo]) even in the case of the investigation of a rebel. Of course, intervention by military forces was not admitted. In addition, in the areas of temples and shrines, the right to collect taxes by government was also not admitted (shoeki funyu [refusal of many obligations]). The areas of temples and shrines which were a different world from the everyday world in such ways became an asylum for the people who were in trouble. Once a person ran into a temple, they were not asked anything by the outside world. Even a criminal was not an exception. Various people including the rich and the poor or high and low social standing entered into temples and the area around temple developed into a city, tied with the spirit of cultural innovation of temples and shrines in those days. Many influential temples and shrines came to have a strong economic power as the base of merchants, traders and finance, because they were guarded by political neutrality and nonaggression although they were located in not so far places from the center of politics such as Kyoto. These were called 'Keidai toshi' (also refer to the articles on Autonomous city or Holy city). The Koyasan Temple city and the Negoro-ji Temple city were typical Keidai toshi.

Sobun' (conference) and 'Sokoku' (self-governing dominion)
The priests in those days were roughly classified into two groups, Gakuryo who learned Buddhism and implemented ascetic practices and Gyonin (priests who actually work) who worked for the office of the temple. In more recent years, the power of Gyonin increased in all temples. In the Sengoku period, most of the military power of temples were occupied by Gyonin and temples' behaviors came to be determined by their will. Jizamurai (local samurai) in Kihoku (northern part of Wakayama Prefecture) had priest's houses built in the Koyasan Temple and the Negoro-ji Temple and actively made their children become priests and sent them to those chief priests. The major Gyonin of the Negoro-ji Temple were constituted by not only jizamurai of Kii Province but also that of Izumi, Kawachi and Yamato Provinces, for example, the Gyonin of Senshiki-bo Temple was the Dobashi clan, the one of Sugino-bo Temple was the Iyotachibana-Tsuda clan (the Kusunoki clan linage) and the one of Joshin-in Temple (成真院) was the Naka clan, jizamurai of Sennan Province. These Gyonin from jizamurai made up a conference named 'sobun' and decided policies of the Negoro-ji Temple. In other words, it was actually a governance by a coalition of jizamurai under the name of the Negoro-ji Temple. Jizamurai had expanded their spheres of influence to the southern part of the Izumi Province with a background of the financial power of Keidai toshi Negoro.

In Saiga, the power of Shugo was so small that it was described as 'There is no Shugo and it was a country governed by farmers' in "Mukashi Awamonogatari" (Tale of Old Awa Province). Jizamurai got rid of the control of Shugo and built autonomy by a bond of ikki.
This was called 'sokoku.'
The area of Saiga sokoku spread from Ama County (Wakayama Prefecture) to a part of Nagusa and Naga Counties (Wakayama Prefecture).

Kishu-zeme by Nobunaga
An invasion into Saiga

In the Ishiyama War which began in 1570, the Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple held onto the advantage and Nobunaga ODA had a tough time against it. Attempting a breakthrough in the battle, Nobunaga targeted Kii Saiga (the estuary region of the Kino-kawa River around the present Wakayama City) which was the base of Saiga shu who was the main force of the Hongan-ji Temple. He thought that if he captured Saiga which was the supply base of soldiers and goods he would be able to destroy the roots of the Hongan-ji Temple group in Osaka. Around June 1576, the Oda army began a maneuver to break it up. Until February in the following year, 1577, it succeeded with the so-called Saiga three groups of shakego (miyago), nakago and nango among five of the Saiga groups.

From the outbreak of war to 'surrender'
On March 1 in the same year, since the Saiga three groups (Mikarami) came to cooperate with Nobunaga, added with the Negoro shu who had previously joined the Oda side, Nobunaga announced a large-scale mobilization in order to capture the remaining two Saiga groups, that is, Saigaso and Jikkago. Nobunaga left Azuchi for Kyoto on 8th. He left Kyoto on the 12th with not only the soldiers in Omi Province which he directly ruled but also the troops of Owari and Mino Provinces led by his legitimate son Nobutada ODA, the troops of Ise Province ruled by Nobukatsu ODA, Nobutaka ODA and Nobukane ODA, and the soldiers of the Kinai region, Echizen, Wakasa, Tango, Tanba and Harima Provinces. On the 15th he entered Izumi Province and on the next day, the 16th, he attacked the Kaizuka City which was the front base of Saiga shu. But the soldiers who guarded it had already withdrawn to Kii Province by ship, so that they could not attack them. On the same day Negoro shu joined the army and Nobunaga moved the headquarter of the army to Izumisano City on the 17th and to Shidachi (Sennan City at present) on the 21st.

The Oda army began an invasion by dispatching all 30,000 soldiers to the two sides of the mountain and beach. The army of the mountain side consisted of Nobumori SAKUMA, Hideyoshi HASHIBA, Hidemasa HORI, Murashige ARAKI, Nagaharu BESSHO, Shigemune BESSHO with the spearhead army of Negoro shu and the Saiga three groups. The army of the beach side consisted of Nobutada ODA, Nobukatsu KITABATAKE, Nobutaka KANBE and Nobukane ODA as well as Kazumasu TAKIGAWA, Mitsuhide AKECHI, Fujitaka HOSOKAWA, Nagahide NIWA, Junkei TSUTSUI and Yamato shu (people of Yamato).

The Oda army of the beach side separated into three groups at Tannowa (Misaki-cho at present), went over the Kyoshi Pass, went down south, breaking the defense line of the Saiga side and besieged the Nakano-jo Castle (Kii Province). On March 27, Nobunaga progressed the headquarter of the army to Tannowa, and on the same day, Nakano-jo Castle surrendered, accepting the recommendation of surrender by the Oda side. On March 30, the Oda army attacked the residence of Magoichi SUZUKI at Hirai (Wakayama City at present).

The Oda army of the mountain side went to Negoro over the Kazefuki Pass from Shidachi, crossed the Kino-kawa River and faced Saiga from the east side. On the other hand, Saiga shu placed its headquarter at Saiga-jo Castle and built up the line of defense with Tozenjiyama-jo Castle, Joge Fort (上下砦), Usayama Fort, Nakatsu-jo Castle (Kii Province) in the north, Kosaki Fort (甲崎砦), Tamatsushima Fort and Nunobikihama Fort in the south and barriers on the riverside, centering on Mirokuyama-jo Castle along the Saiga-gawa River (Waka-gawa River).

Although the date can not be specified, the troops of Hidemasa HORI, the spearhead of the mountain side army, tried to cross the Saiga-gawa River after March 23. According to the descriptions on Saiga Kassen in the second volume of "Kii no Kuni Meisho Zue" (Illustrated collection of famous places of the Kii Province), the Saiga army previously sank abatis, wooden buckets, jars and heads of spear at the bottom of the Saiga-gawa River in order to prevent the enemy's crossing of the river. While some of the Oda army could not move in the river and others who crossed the river could not progress quickly in the marsh, two rows of 25 soldiers each shot them with guns without interruption and furthermore, other units shot them with bows. By these attacks, the Oda army was greatly damaged and withdrew.

After that, the state of the war was stalled. The Saiga side fought back with guerrilla warfare and the Oda army set afire and killed local people. The seven persons such as Magoichi SUZUKI, Wakatayu DOBASHI (土橋若大夫) and Saburotayu AWAMURA (粟村三郎大夫) submitted a cosignatory written oath to Nobunaga, by which they swore to surrender on the condition that Nobunaga would consider the situation in Osaka. As a result, Nobunaga issued shuinjo (a vermilion seal letter) on April 13 and pardoned them. On the 19th, Nobunaga withdrew to Kyoto.

However, it seems that they surrendered only nominally and that in fact, the Oda army withdrew in exchange for the nominal surrender of Saiga shu. Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA and Terumoto MORI had trumpeted the defeat of the Oda side in those days, and Saiga shu rose an army again and fought with Nobunaga within half a year.

When Nobunaga withdrew, he had Sano Fort (Izumisano City at present) built in order to prepare a comeback of Saiga shu and Nobuharu ODA stayed after completion.

The comeback and revenge against the neighborhood
In August of the same year, Saiga shu consisting of warriors of Saigaso and Jikkago rose an army and began to retaliate against the three groups who previously sided with Nobunaga. On October 7, the Saiga shu including Magoichi SUZUKI fought with the local clan of Nango such as Hidetsugu INAI and Yasuke OKAMOTO at Inomatsubara (Kainan City at present), helped by kokujin and jizamurai in the Hidaka County, and defeated them. Around this time, Nobunaga mobilized 70,000 or 80,000 soldiers with the commanders of Nobumori SAKUMA and his son and attacked Saiga again, but he failed again at this time.

In June of the following year, 1578, he besieged and attacked the Ota-jo Castle of miyago with Saigaso, Jikkago, nakago and nango, but he could not capture it. After that, miyago apologized to the Hongan-ji Temple and was pardoned.

After the surrender of the Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple
After the reconciliation of the Hongan-ji Temple with Nobunaga ODA in 1580, Magoichi SUZUKI and Wakatayu DOBASHI in Saiga had gradually increased conflicts.

On February 25, 1582, Magoichi SUZUKI murdered Wakatayu DOBASHI. Before that, Magoichi received an informal consent from Nobunaga and attacked the residence of the Dobashi clan at Awamura (Wakayama City at present), helped by Nobuharu ODA and his followers Izumi shu and Negoro shu. The Dobashi group fought back under the five bereaved children of Wakatayu. But Magoichi won in this internal trouble of Saiga after the Dobashi brothers of Heiji and Heinojo escaped on March 12 and the Senshiki-bo Temple of the Negoro-ji Temple was defeated. The Saiga shu led by Magoichi who was supported by Nobunaga had strengthened the relationship with the Oda clan, for example, it provided 100 ships for the attack against the Shikoku region by Nobutaka ODA.

An attack against the Koyasan Temple

The Koyasan Temple was the center of belief as the head temple of the Shingon sect as well as the Enryaku-ji Temple and a big power in the Kii Province which had 170,000 koku (approximately 30.6 million liters of crop yield) of scattered jiryo (temple estate) all over the country.

The relationship between Koyasan and Nobunaga ODA began to become worse since the trouble on the issue of territorial rights over Yamato Uchi County in 1573. In April 1580, the five remnants of Murashige ARAKI escaped into Sannai (precincts of the temple) and Nobunaga who knew it sent Toshiie MAEDA and Mitsuharu FUWA to Koyasan as messengers in August. However, Koyasan told the messengers that the bird who rushed into its breast was not purged and rejected to hand them over. In September, the 32 foot soldiers of Yukan MATSUI, who was Sakai bugyo (magistrate of around Sakai), entered Sannai and started acts of violence and assault in the name of a search for the remnants of the Araki clan. For this reason, all of them were killed by the Koyasan side. As revenge for that, Nobunaga ordered the capture of Koya hijiri (ascetic of Koya-san Temple) in various countries on November 8.

Koyasan did not intend to oppose Nobunaga at all and continued pacification, such as a petition to the Imperial Court and sending a messenger to apologize to Nobunaga. Nobunaga also did not intend to use military force immediately as he gave shuinjo which admitted the territorial right over Uchi County to Koyasan on November 8. But they did not reach an agreement on the handover of the remnants of the Araki clan which had triggered the conflict.

On September 24, 1581, Nobunaga executed hundreds of Koya hijiri at Azuchi. After that, a rumor that Nobunaga would attack Koyasan was spread.

A consideration on the existence or nonexistence and the scale of the war
According to "Koya Shunju Hennen Shuroku" (The Springs and Falls of Mt. Koya), the number of Nobunaga's army reached more than 137,220 in total, led by the general commander Nobutaka ODA with the troops of Shigetaka OKADA, Shogoro MATSUYAMA and others along the Kino-kawa River, Junkei TSUTSUI and his son Sadatsugu at Yamato guchi, and blocking Koya nanakuchi (seven gates of Koyasan), starting from Hidemasa HORI's arrival at Negoro on November 18. On the other hand, the Koyasan side gathered more than 36,000 troops in total with armed priests and jizamurai in the territory and ronin (masterless samurai).

However, it's doubtful that the Oda clan who faced enemies in various directions in those days could send such a big military force to Koyasan. In addition, compared to the large army, the status of the commander was too low and the names of samurai who appeared in this literature clearly included those who were working in other region in those days, therefore, the size of the war described in "Koya Shunju" are cast into doubt. However, the attack against Koyasan itself can not be called fiction, judging from fragmented information which remain in various historical materials. It might be reasonable to consider that there was a much smaller battle than that on the record of Koyasan.

The process of war
The side of Koyasan mobilized all samurai in the territories of Ito County, Naga County (Wakayama Prefecture) and Arida County and built many forts such as 'Koya seven forts' led by a strategist Hayato HASHIGUCHI. The arrangement of 'Koya seven forts' was as follows.

The Fort of West Wakian (脇庵) (the commander was Kakushin of Seiho-in Temple) which referred to Chausuyama-jo Castle (Kinokawa City at present [former Naga Town])
The Fort of Ryumonzan Kumoji (Kakujo of Daikomyo-in Temple) which was located on the westernmost side
The Fort of Terao dan (Shozan of Io-in Temple)
The Fort of Maki of Mt. Kudo (Chisogen-in [智荘厳院])
The Fort of Mt.Ametsubo (HASHIGUCHI Hayato Shigefuji [重藤]) which was also located on Mt.Kudo
The Fort of Mobara Yakushi in the east (Kaio of Kao-in Temple) and the Fort of Mt. Nishio in the west (Kakuo of Zenko-in Temple) which were located in Kamuro guchi
These two forts of east and west were counted as one fort.

The Fort of Jizogamine (Nagamasa of Sanpo-in Temple) which was located in the Yamato guchi and Yoshino Omine
(According to "Jokaku Taikei" [Compendium of Castle], volume 10, page 451-452). It especially emphasized on the west Ouzu guchi and the north Kamuro guchi and allocated Bensen of Nanrenjo-in Temple (a son of Nobunori YUSA) at Ouzu guchi and Kaio of Kao-in Temple (a son of Akitaka HATAKEYAMA) at Kamuro guchi as a commander. In addition, experienced priests of Gakuryogata (learned priest) took turns lighting a holy fire and prayed for Nobunaga's surrender.

On November 1581, the Oda army lined up around the north shore of Kino-kawa River and the general commander Nobutaka ODA placed the headquarter of the army at the Hachibuseyama (Seyama)-jo Castle (Katsuragi-cho at present). The Negoro shu was also mobilized by the Oda side. The Oda army and the Koyasan army faced each other across the Kino-kawa River, but they continued to negotiate and did not fight so much in that year.

In February of the following year, 1582, Nobunaga dispatched Shinsuke MATSUYAMA to Tawa (Hashimoto City at present). Matsuyama had a castle built at Tawa and actively attacked Kudoyama Town at the beginning of March. On March 13, Nobunaga urged Yamato-shu including Junkei TSUTSUI to join the army for the conquest of the Takeda clan. At the same time, he ordered a part of Yamato shu and Kawachi shu to stay behind in order to hinder Koyasan. On March 18, the Koya army attacked the Tawa-jo Castle and the fort of Yamato guchi which the Tsutsui army guarded. At the end of March, Shigetaka OKADA and others of the Oda side attacked the fort of Mt. Nishio at Kamuro guchi, but they were defeated, losing two warriors.

On April 5, more than 50 soldiers of the Koya army attacked the Tawa-jo Castle at night and damaged it. In the early morning of the 12th, the Oda army attacked the Fort of Terao dan as revenge for the night attack. The castle commander Io-in was killed in the battle, but the Oda army of yosete (the troops attacking an enemy) were also damaged greatly and were beaten off. At the beginning of May, Nobutaka ODA was transferred to the commander for an attack of the Shikoku region. In the same month, Tonai TAKEDA (竹田藤内) and others of the Oda side attacked Kawaichi (川市) (Ouzu of the former Naga Town [Wakayama Prefecture]) of the Iimoriyama-jo Castle at Ouzu guchi. The Koya army including the general commander Bensen of Nanrenjo-in Temple and the vice-commander Hayato HASHIGUCHI prevented it and killed four samurai such as Takeda and got 131 koshu (the head of a warrior).

In the evening of July 1, Koyasan was informed of the Honnoji Incident. Soon, the Oda army began to withdraw and the Koya army chased and defeated it. Koyasan got through a crisis and on September 17 it gave Onsho (reward grants).

Hideyoshi's attack of Kishu

The Negoro-ji Temple held eight shoen (manor in medieval Japan) at Kii and Izumi Provinces on the background of the support of the bakufu in the Muromachi period and had strong economic and military powers. In the Sengoku period, it was at the height of its prosperity, holding power in the areas from Kihoku to Kawachi Province and south of Izumi Province and having a temple castle. It seems that there were more than 450 priest's houses in the temple and more than 5,000 people such as priests lived there around 1575. In addition, it held a strong military force of armed priests which were commonly called Negoro shu and equipped with a large amount of guns. The Negoro-ji Temple consistently cooperated and held friendship with Nobunaga. However, Hideyoshi HASHIBA did not feel good about Negoro-ji Temple's progress to the Sennan region and waited for an opportunity to put it down.

The Honno-ji Incident also changed the power relationship among Saiga shu. After it was informed via the Sakai region in the morning of July 2, 1582, Magoichi SUZUKI, who had power as a pro-Oda group, escaped from Saiga during the night. In the early morning of the 3rd, the anti-Oda group rose a revolt, set fire to Magoichi's residence and attacked a pro-Magoichi group who still stayed there.

After that, Saiga was lead by the former anti-Oda groups such as the Dobashi clan. The Dobashi clan strengthened its relationship with the Negoro-ji Temple, partly because it had Senshiki-bo Temple built in the Negoro-ji Temple and sent a member of the family. In addition, it restored the relationship with the opposing groups such as miyago in the battle with the Oda clan, which led to the pattern that Negoro and Saiga cooperated to oppose Hideyoshi HASHIBA.

The preliminary skirmish
In 1583, Hideyoshi transferred Yoritaka HACHIYA to Omi Province and had Kazuuji NAKAMURA become the lord of the Kishiwada-jo Castle in order to prevent the force of Kii. The direct military force of Kazuuji was about 3,000, which was not enough to confront the Kishu army. Therefore, he added Izumi shu as the same side and composed less than 5,000 military force in total. As opposed to this, Negoro and Saiga shu built tsukejiro (branch castles) at Nakamura, Sawa, Tanaka, Shakuzenji and Sengokubori (all of them are located in the present Kaizuka City). After that, the Kishiwada army and Kishu army frequently had skirmishes. Negoro and Saiga shu worked respectfully for Sadamasa HATAKEYAMA as a nominal master and also received the support of the Yukawa clan in Kinan (southern part of Wakayama Prefecture).

In August of the same year, Kennyo moved from the Sagimori Annex of the Hongan-ji Temple to the Gansen-ji Temple (Kaizuka City).

Starting around the fall of the same year, the Kishu army began to move actively. In November, Kazuuji issued a command to attack at night, avoiding a fight from the front because he had a smaller military force. In the early morning of February 12, 1584 (on New Year's day in the old lunar calendar) the Kishu army attacked. On the 15th, the Kishiwada army attacked the five branch castles of the Kishu side and fought fiercely with jizamurai who guarded them. On the 28th, the Kishu army arrived to help and tried to attack the Kishiwada army with 8,000 soldiers combined with the five castles' soldiers. The Kishiwada group opposed the Kishu group with 6,000 soldiers, intercepted it along the Kogi-gawa River and defeated them.

An attack against Osaka
In April of the same year, Negoro, Saiga shu and monk-soldiers of the Kokawa-dera Temple made a sortie to Izumi Province, gaining the reinforcements of the Yukawa and Tamaki clans of Hidaka County. In addition, the navy of Michinaga KAN in Awaji Province also joined the army, so that they threatened the area of Kishiwada and Izumiotsu Cities from sea and land on April 28. Sadanari MANABE, jizamurai of Otsu, beat off the Kan navy consisting of 200 ships and 1,000 soldiers.

On May 1, Hideyoshi left for the front in Owari Province. On the following day, the 2nd, the Kishu army separated into two groups. One group attacked the Kishiwada-jo Castle with 4,000 or 5,000 soldiers with the commanders of Heinojo DOBASHI and his brother. Another occupied Sakai City and exiled Yukan MATSUI, the government officer of Sakai, moved to Sumiyoshi County and Tennoji on the 6th and fought with rusui (caretaker or keeper) of Osaka-jo Castle such as Iemasa HACHISUKA, Chikamasa IKOMA and Nagamasa KURODA. The town of Osaka which was under construction was totally undefended, so that people put fire to their houses, fearing the destruction by the Kishu army. In addition, it is said that the increase of robbers and robberies deteriorated the security situation as bad as the time when Azuchi-jo Castle was burnt down. Finally, Osaka was guarded and the Kishu army withdrew from Sakai and Kishiwada as well. This was called the Battle of Kishiwada.

This attack was done just before Hideyoshi was going to leave for the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute. For this reason, although Hideyoshi left Osaka on May 1 as scheduled, but his start was spoiled and had to go back to Osaka. After that, Yasumasa SAKUMA moved to Miyama (Nishigori County) of Kawachi Province in May and had Miyama-jo Castle built as the headquarter in September. In addition, Negoro and Saiga shu communicated with the Chosokabe clan in the Shikoku region around this time.

The Battle at Izumi Province
In March 1585, Hideyoshi ordered Takakage KOBAYAKAWA to dispatch the Mori navy to Kishiwada. Then, Takakage prepared to leave by himself on May 31, 1585, and the Mori navy led by Takakage left for the front.

On April 8, Hideyoshi issued a ban which guaranteed security against Kaizuka Jinai-cho (temple villages). On the same day, he dispatched Kozosu, a waiting woman of Kodaiin, to the Kaizuka Hongan-ji Temple and got acquainted.

Early in the same month, Hideyoshi dispatched Mokujiki Ogo to the Negoro-ji Temple as a messenger, and Ogo mediated a peace agreement on the condition of returning a part of the expanded jiryo. Negoro shu brought on active debate over its pros and cons, but the opposing group shot down the lodgment of Ogo by gun during the night, and as a result, Ogo quickly went to Kyoto.

Finally Hideyoshi began to invade Kii Province. The army of Kamigata (Kyoto and Osaka area) was 100,000 soldiers led by Hideyoshi himself. The vanguard was his nephew Hidetsugu TOYOTOMI, and 23 units were lined up in the sea side and the mountain side. In addition, Yukinaga KONISHI became the commander of navy with many military ships and they attacked Negoro and Saiga from both sides of sea and land. Against this, Negoro and Saiga shu lined up more than 9,000 soldiers in total at some castles of Sennan such as Sawa, Shakuzenji, Hatanakajo and Sengokubori.

On April 19, the vanguard Hidetsugu troops left Osaka and arrived in Kaizuka. On the 20th, Hideyoshi left Osaka for the front and entered Kishiwada-jo Castle. On the same day, some troops of the vanguard approached castles and forts of Sennan, but since it was afternoon, they began to dispute whether they should begin to attack on that day or the next day. Since Kazuuji NAKAMURA insisted on attacking immediately because 'it gives a bad impression to other countries to postpone an attack in spite of such a big difference of military force,' they began to fight immediately.

An offensive and defensive battle at Sengokubori-jo Castle

At first, they began to fight at the Sengokubori-jo Castle which was the east end of the defense line. It is said that 1,400-1,500 elite units of Negoro shu including the castle commander Sadahito OTANI (大谷左大仁) and 4,000-5,000 noncombatants including women and children took refuge in Sengokubori-jo Castle. The attacking Kamigata army included Hidemasa HORI, Sadatsugu TSUTSUI and Shuichi HASEGAWA with the general commander Hidetsugu HASHIBA.

When 15,000 troops of Tsutsui, Hasegawa and Hori attacked, more than 500 castle soldiers fought against them and took them in a surprise attack with bows and guns. With such a heavy shooting that it was described as 'the shooting from the castle was like scattering of sesame on sand,' and many soldiers of the Kamigata army were killed. Among the 8,000 soldiers of the Tsutsui troops including its followers Yamato shu and Iga shu, several thousand soldiers were killed or injured by the shooting of the castle soldiers and could not progress.

Seeing the hard battle of his side, Hidetsugu HASHIBA guessed that the Sengokubori-jo Castle's defense was not enough because it had been built quickly and had more than 3,000 of his direct soldiers such as Yoshimasa TANAKA and Shigeaki WATARASE flank the castle. However, they were countered by the shooting from castle with bows and guns and many of them were killed in the battle. Hidetsugu made his troops including umamawari (horse guards) attack the Ninomaru (second bailey), kill more than 300 castle soldiers and attack Honmaru (the keep of a castle), but they were prevented by the shooting with bows and guns of the castle soldiers again. It is said that more than 1,000 soldiers of the Hidetsugu troops were killed or injured in only about one hour through a set of offense and defense.

At this time, Hidesuke NAKANOBO and Iga shu among the Tsusui troops approached the castle from karamete (backdoor) and shot a fire arrow into it. Since this fire arrow touched off a powder house and it exploded, the castle burst into flames and led to surrender. The people in castle were burnt to death and all castle soldiers who went out of the castle for fighting were killed in the battle. Hideyoshi harshly ordered the killing of all people and animals, so that all in the castle including not only noncombatants but also horses, dogs and cats were killed.

The surrender of the Shakuzenji-jo Castle and the Sawa-jo Castle
At the Hatanaka-jo Castle, the castle soldiers consisting of jizamurai and farmers of Hine County fought against Kazuuji NAKAMURA. On the night of the 20th when Sengokubori-jo Castle fell, the castle soldiers set fire to the castle by themselves and withdrew.

In the evening of the same day, a battle also began at the Shakuzenji-jo Castle which was the core of the defense line. Against the castle soldiers of Negoro shu led by Ukon IDEHARA (井出原右近), Hasuikebo YAMADA (山田蓮池坊) and others, Tadaoki HOSOKAWA, Yoshitsugu OTANI, Ujisato GAMO, Terumasa IKEDA and others attacked. The castle soldiers went out of the castle, throwing stones and shooting with bows and guns and fought with the Hosokawa troops, the vanguard of yosete. The Hosokawa troops were heavily damaged, but after the Gamo troops joined, they attacked the castle led by Yasuyuki MATSUI. The castle soldiers stayed in the castle. On the following day, the 21st, Shakuzenji-jo Castle was surrendered by mediation of Ryochin BOKUHANSAI, a head priest of the Gansen-ji Temple (Kaizuka City).

At Sawa-jo Castle which was the west end of the defense line, a battle also began. The troops of Ukon TAKAYAMA and Hidemasa NAKAGAWA attacked Saiga shu who guarded the castle. There was the same pattern where the castle soldiers shot the Kamigata army with guns, and many soldiers of yosete were injured. Hidemasa NAKAGAWA fought in the front by himself, broke through Ninomaru and came close to the Honmaru. The castle soldiers who were tracked down to Honmaru offered surrender. Hidenaga HASHIBA put in a vow under Hideyoshi's permission, and Sawa-jo Castle surrendered on the 22nd.

The surrender of Sawa-jo Castle was the final fall among the falls of castles and forts of the Kishu side in Izumi Province.

The reason for Negoro and Saiga shu's defeat
It can be said that the unit of gun fighters of Negoro and Saiga shu was the strongest both in quality and quantity in the Sengoku period. However, the vanguard castles and forts in Izumi Province which they guarded were destroyed in three days after the Kamigata army began to attack. This was totally different from what the Kishu side had expected.

The first goal for Sengoku daimyo was to maintain his territory or expand it if possible. For this reason, they wanted to avoid something as uneconomical as paying a big sacrifice in every battle. Therefore, it was their common response that if the vanguard was greatly damaged in the battle they did not fight daringly any more. Negoro and Saiga shu thought that they could stand down enemies if they defeated the vanguard elite troops even against a big army. This was based on the feeling of Sengoku daimyo who avoided big sacrifices as much as possible.

However, Hideyoshi did not have such a 'common sense' in the Sengoku period. Hideyoshi, who had an overwhelmingly big power and military force, adopted the tactics to attack with a big army ignoring any big sacrifice. They never withdrew despite many soldiers who were shot, and repeated attacking with numbers, so that even the elite unit of gun fighters of the Kishu army could not oppose them with a smaller force.

Burning of Negoro, Kokawa and Saiga

On April 22, Hideyoshi, who saw the conquest of Izumi Province, left Kishiwada-jo Castle for Negoro-ji Temple. The main force of Negoro shu went out to the battle line of Izumi and few people who could fight stayed at the temple. The priests who had stayed there escaped and Negoro-ji Temple was taken with almost no resistance. On that night, Negoro-ji Temple was destroyed by fire except a part of it such as the Hondo (main hall), Tahoto pagoda (a "multi-treasure" pagoda) (big pagoda) and Nandai-mon gate (great south gate). It is said that Negoro-ji Temple had burnt for three days and that red shining sky could be seen at Hongan-ji Temple which was located in Kaizuka in those days. As to the reason for the burning of Negoro-ji Temple, there is a theory that the people there set burned it by themselves, and another that Hideyoshi ordered it set ablaze and another that a soldier set fire without any order or by negligence.

On the same day or the following day, the 23rd, the Kokawa-dera Temple was destroyed by fire.

A little before that, on the 21st, the Oka shu (岡衆) of Saigaso who defected to the Kamigata army asked by the Shirakashi clan of Arida County, shot Minato shu (湊衆) of Saiga with a gun, which caused confusion in Saiga. On the same day, Heinojo DOBASHI escaped to Tosa Province by ship, relying on Motochika CHOSOKABE, and Minato shu also tried to escape by ship. However, many of them died, partly because some ships sank because too many people got on. On the following day, the 22nd, the vanguard of the Kamigata army invaded Saigaso and on the 23rd, Hideyoshi who came from Negoro entered Saiga by going west along the northern shore of Kino-kawa River. On the same day, the Kamigata army besieged the residence of the Dobashi clan at Awa village. In addition, the Kamigata army set fire to the areas of Minato and Nakanoshima, and half or two thirds of the other areas were also burnt, but the areas of Saginomori Temple, Oka and Uji were safe.
In this way, Saigaso was destroyed and described as 'Saiga ruined itself because of betrayals.'

Meanwhile, Hideyoshi worshiped the Kimii-dera Temple on the 24th.

The conquest of Kinan

The remnants of Saiga shu stayed in Ota-jo Castle and the main force of the Kamigata army attacked there. On the other hand, other troops such as Hidehisa SENGOKU, Kazuuji NAKAMURA and Yukinaga KONISHI were dispatched to Kinan in order to conquer it.

Before the attack of Kishu by the Kamigata army, Kokujin-shu of Kinan showed various responses. While Naoharu YUKAWA who held great power around Hidaka County insisted on resistance, the Jinbo and Shirakashi clans in Arida County and Naokazu TAMAKI (Wasa Tamaki clan), a husband of Naoharu's daughter, in Hidaka County separated from the Yukawa clan and followed the Kamigata army. For this reason, Naoharu YUKAWA fought with the Shirakashi clan at Najima (present Hirogawa-cho [Wakayama Prefecture]) at first and besieged Tedori-jo Castle (Hidakagawa-cho at present) of the Tamaki clan next (the Battle of Sakanose).

The Arida County was the base of Masanao HATAKEYAMA and his son Sadamasa whose family had had the status of Shugo of Kii Province. The Hatakeyama clan did not have real power, but since it was held as a nominal head of the battle with Hideyoshi by Negoro and Saiga shu, it was attacked by the Kamigata army. Then, the Shirakashi and Jinbo clans who were hikan of Hatakeyama clan defected to the Kamigata army as mentioned above. In the period from April 22 to 24, the Kamigata army captured Toya-jo Castle (present Aridagawa-cho), a branch castle of the Hatakeyama clan, and furthermore, the headquarter, Iwamuro-jo Castle (present Arida City). Sadamasa HATAKEYAMA defeated.

In Hidaka County (Wakayama Prefecture) the Kamigata army arrived and invaded the territory of the Yukawa clan around April 22 or 23. Naoharu thought that it was difficult to defend, and escaped to Tomari-jo Castle (present Tanabe City) of his uncle Noriharu YUKAWA (湯河教春) after burning his residence at Komatsubara and the Kameyama-jo Castle (all of which were in present Gobo City). However, Hidehisa SENGOKU and Mushin SUGIWAKA attacked Tomari-jo Castle. Naoharu abandoned the castle and withdrew until the 27th and left for Kumano through Ryujinyama-jo Castle (present Tanabe City). About 3,000 Kamigata soldiers entered Tanabe, burnt down all shrines and temples there and seized their shoryo (territory).

In Muro County (Kumano district), the Yamamoto clan in Kuchikumano offered do-or-die resistance, following the Yukawa clan. The Kamigata army separated into two groups after the occupation of Tomari-jo Castle. While Mushin SUGIWAKA left for Ryushosan (Ichinose)-jo Castle (present Kamitonda-cho) where Yasutada YAMAMOTO stayed, leading about 1,000 soldiers, Hidehisa SENGOKU, Tomonobu BITO and Takatora TODO chased the Yukawa troops, leading 1,500 soldiers.

On April 30, the three commanders such as Sengoku were countered by the Yukawa army over the Shiomi Pass (Nakahechi-cho, Tanabe City) and withdrew. Around the same time, the Sugiwaka troops were also defeated by the Yamamoto troops at Sanpojigawara (Sanpoji shores) (present Kamitonda-cho), which interrupted punitive expedition. However, the Yukawa and Yamamoto troops did not have the power to drive out the Kamigata army, so that the battle in this direction was prolonged.

On the other hand, in Okukumano, after Ujiyoshi HORINOUCHI at Shingu surrendered before May 12, Sadamori TAKAGAWARA, Koyama, Morinao IROKAWA and others returned to allegiance with the Kamigata army and each of them received honryo-ando (acknowledgment for inherited estate). In addition, in Kuchikumano, the Ataka clan also returned to allegiance.

The surrender of Koyasan
On May 9, Hideyoshi dispatched a messenger to Koyasan and suggested surrender. He threatened to set fire to all of the mountain if it would not accept conditions such as the return of most of the territories it had expanded, forbidding military force, and hiding rebels on the mountain. The priests of Koyasan decided to accept all conditions as a result of a conference, and sent Mokujiki Ogo, a guest priest, as a messenger on the 15th. Ogo met Hideyoshi who was in camp at miyago, bringing the shinkan (imperial letter) of the Emperor Saga and Kukai's handprint documents which were the important treasures of Koyasan. Hideyoshi accepted Ogo's explanation and guaranteed the existence of Koyasan. After that, Koyasan completed disarmament by December 14.

As a result, Koyasan escaped from destruction and was provided authorization for 10,000 koku (approximately 1.8 million liters of crop yield) land ownership and guaranteeing feudal tenure in 1591 after finishing Taiko-kenchi (the land survey by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI). In addition, Mokujiki Ogo was personally given 1,000 koku. In 1592 when Koyasan had the Teihatsu-ji Temple (later the Seigan-ji Temple, the present Kongobu-ji Temple) built at the time of the ceremony as a memorial of Omandokoro, it was donated 10,000 koku by Hideyoshi. As a result, its territory became 21,000 koku in total, which was established as jiryo in the Edo period.

The inundation tactics of the Ota-jo Castle
After Saigaso was occupied by the Kamigata army, 5,000 people including jizamurai led by Sakon Munemasa OTA held Ota-jo Castle (Kii Province) at miyago which was near the Hinokuma Kunikakasu-jingu Shrine. On May 6, 1592 Kazuuji NAKAMURA and Magoichi SUZUKI visited the castle and recommended surrender, but the castle side rejected it.

The battle at Kozaika
Except Ota-jo Castle, some castles at Saiga continued to fight. It is said that Iganokami SATAKE held a castle of Kozaika with Genshiro MATOBA, and continued to guard it for 32 days, finally surrendering after the surrender of Ota-jo Castle.

The battle at Ota-jo Castle

As Frois expressed it 'like one town,' Ota-jo Castle was not only a military base but also a town surrounded by a moat. At first, Hideyoshi intended to capture this castle by starvation tactics, but since it took too much time, he changed it to inundation tactics. It seems that the reasons why he chose a long drawn-out battle instead of hard-line tactics were not only to prevent damage of the military force but also to avoid the image of hard fighting being spread. In the previous battle of Sengokubori-jo Castle in Izumi Province, he could capture it in one day because of the explosion of the powder house, but his army also suffered a great deal of damage. It seems that he was afraid of a repeat of Ota-jo Castle.

In another aspect, it can be also thought that he tried to show his power which could also control water by attacking Ota-jo Castle with water which had fundamentally guarded the castle. The bank for inundation tactics was 7.2km long and seven meters high.

The Kamigata army consisted of the supreme commander Hideyoshi, the vice commanders Hidenaga and Hidetsugu, and Tadaoki HOSOKAWA, Masuhide GAMO (the former name of Ujisato GAMO), Hidemasa NAKAGAWA, Nagamori MASUDA, Sadatsugu TSUTSUI, Hideie UKITA, Shuichi HASEGAWA, Masakatsu HACHISUKA, Nagayasu MAENO and so on. The bank began construction from May 9. In the middle of this construction of the bank, the part under Kogashu's responsibility broke, so that Kogashu was punished with Kaieki (forfeit rank of Samurai and properties) and exile. It was completed by May 16 and water began to be poured in. On the other hand, another bank (hereinafter this is called the side bank) had been built for flood control and defense before that, and it was reinforced by the castle side after it began to hold the castle. The existence of the side bank prevented the immersion of the castle.

On May 19, the side bank was broken and the castle was flooded and fell into confusion. However, the change of water pressure caused by the break of side bank resulted in the break of the bank for inundation tactics on the following day, the 20th, by which many soldiers of the Ukita troops of yosete drowned. The castle side regarded this as the power of gods. The besiegers soon began to repair the bank and completed it by the 24th. Nobukatsu ODA visited Saiga on the 28th and Hideyasu YUKI and Kazumasa ISHIKAWA did so on 29th.

At first Hideyoshi thought that he could make it surrender in a few days after the start of inundation tactics. However, a break of the enemy's bank made the besieged believe the power of god, so that it continued to fight with patience. On June 1, the besiegers made the navy of Yukinaga KONISHI enter the inside of the bank. With this attack by Atake-bune (a type of naval warship) and cannons, it temporarily occupied most of the castle area. But the castle soldiers also fought with guns and the besiegers were greatly damaged and withdrew. The besiegers could not capture the castle, but the besieged gave up resistance with this attack and surrendered, submitting 53 heads of important persons on the following day, the 2nd. The 53 heads were shown at Abeno in Osaka Tennoji. In addition, 23 wives of the important persons were crucified. The other people such as zohyo (common soldiers) and farmers were allowed to leave the castle.

Hideyoshi admitted the farmers who surrendered and left the castle to bring back farming equipment, furniture and household goods to their home, but he seized weapons. This is said to be the first command to collect swords in historical materials which aimed at heinobunri (a separation of the warrior class in this domain from the soil). The Hinokuma-gu Shrine, which was the spirit of miyago, had the main building destroyed and the territory seized.

After the war
There were still some resistance in a part of the Hidaka and Muro Counties, but most of the other places were subdued by the Kamigata army. After the conquest of Kii Province, Hideyoshi commanded to collect swords from farmers all over the country. The Kii Province became the territory of Hidenaga TOYOTOMI and he arranged Heisuke KIKKAWA at Kiiminato, Kazunori AOKI at Hidakanyuyama (日高入山), Takatora TODO at Kokawa, Mushin SUGIWAKA at Tanabe and Ujiyoshi HORINOUCHI at Shingu. In addition, he had the Wakayama-jo Castle built by assigning Takatora TODO as bugyo (magistrate) and assigned Shigeharu KUWAYAMA to Jodai (the keeper of castle). Taiko-kenchi (the land survey by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI) by Hidenaga began from September 1584 and shifted into full swing after the fall of 1587.

Peace negotiations and premeditated murder
Since Naoharu YUKAWA began to counter at the end of May, a part of the army for the conquest of the Shikoku region was dispatched to the Kii Province. On November 15, the Yukawa troops were defeated in the Battle of Enoki Pass (榎峠) and withdrew into the mountains. However, it began to attack again at the end of November, and made Mushin SUGIWAKA, Shigeharu KUWAYAMA, Tadayori UTA and others face an uphill battle. As a result, the Kamigata army could not subvert the Yukawa clan and others, made peace negotiations and approved the main land of the Yukawa clan and others.

In the following year, 1586, Naoharu YUKAWA died. As to the reason for Naoharu's death, there is a theory of poisoning and another theory of disease.

Kokujin-shu after that
While Mitsuharu (Katsuharu), a son of Naoharu, of the Yukawa clan was approved 3,000 koku, the Yamamoto, Kishi, Mera and Sanji Tamaki clans fell. Those who surrendered early on such as the Jinbo and Shirakashi clans were approved their territories, but the Wasa Tamaki clan was approved 3,500 koku among all lands which were said to be 10,000 koku.

Although most of the survived samurai in Kumano were ruled by the Horiuchi clan. However, the Irokawa clan and others disliked being ruled by the Horiuchi clan because of the previous relationship and joined the troops under the Todo clan at the time of Japan's Invasion of Korea.

After Hidenaga died in 1591, Hideyasu TOYOTOMI, his adopted son, succeeded the family but suddenly died in 1595. After that, the Kii Province became a directly controlled land of Hideyoshi and a local governor Nagamori MASUDA ruled it from the office at Yamatokoriyama.

The Riot of Kii Province
Most of the temple and kokujin power in Kii Province were yielded or subverted by this battle, but jizamurai in each place often started riots. Although it had been ruled by Shugo in name only, it suddenly became the land of Hidenaga TOYOTOMI and the directly controlled land of Hideyoshi next, and the land survey in the Tensho era and Sword hunt (to confiscate the weapons of the enemies of the new regime in order to secure the position of a new ruler) were implemented. Under the next rule of the Asano clan, the land survey in the Keicho era was also implemented, which not only cut jizamurai's fortune but also denied their social status. A reaction against such a rapid rule of recent times brew out in the form of the riot of a powerful local clan.

In September 1586, a riot broke out in the mountain area from Kumano and Sanjigo (山地郷) of Hidaka County (present Ryujin-mura, Tanabe City) and was suppressed by Heisuke YOSHIKAWA and so on. On October 1598, a riot broke out again at Sanjigo of Hidaka County, seizing the opportunity of Hideyoshi's death in the previous month. It was suppressed after the oppression where all people were killed by sword irrespective of age or gender by samurai of Hidaka and Muro Counties such as the Horiuchi and Sugiwaka clans under the command of Nagamori MASUDA.

In December, 1614, jizamurai, yamabushi (a mountain priest) and others at Okukumano started a riot, seizing the opportunity of Osaka Fuyu no Jin (Winter Siege of Osaka), and attacked the Shingu-jo Castle. The army of the riot was defeated at the Kumano-gawa River and was suppressed in less than 20 days (Kitayama Ikki). 363 people were executed in this riot. In April of the following year, 1615, jizamurai in Hidaka, Arida and Nagusa Counties rose to riot, targeting the Wakayama-jo Castle from which Nagaakira ASANO left, in accordance with the outbreak of Osaka Natsu no Jin (Summer Siege of Osaka), but they were suppressed again. 443 people were executed in this riot. The Asano side called these two riots, the Riot of Kii Province.

The resistance of local power ended after the defeat in the Riot of Kii Province.

Medieval period and recent times (significance)
Although the area of the attack against Kishu were only the two provinces of Izumi and Kii, there were some important points of dispute which separated the medieval period and recent times in this series of battles.

A denial of 'Muen' (to break off the relationship with the outside world)
The temples on Mt. Hiei and Mt. Koya had had the highest status among temples and shrines and their neutrality and inviolability had been respected through the medieval period. In addition, its independency was supported by the economic and military powers which could reject the intervention of authority. Once a person entered the area of the temple, he was not asked anything by the outside world, and the temple accepted anybody. Therefore, authorities where not allowed to have power in the temple, and such an idea regarding temples and shrines was called 'Muen' by Masatoshi ITO.

Nobunaga ODA disliked that the idea of 'Muen' of temples and shrines becoming a shield of his enemies. Nobunaga requested temples and shrines not to accept his enemies, for example, he requested Mt. Hiei to make the Azai and Asakura forces withdraw and Mt. Koya to deliver the remnants of the Araki clan.
This was equal to the abandonment of independency and neutrality against authority, so that it is natural that the temples and shrines rejected these requests with the idea of 'Muen.'
This led to the fire attack against Mt. Hiei and the attack against Koyasan, and the temple on Mt. Hiei was subverted and the Koyasan Temple survived because of Nobunaga's unnatural death.

Hideyoshi HASHIBA succeeded Nobunaga's attitude against temples and shrines. After the surrender of Koyasan Temple, Hideyoshi announced that they must not hide rebels and criminals and that they could accept only hermits. This is because the existence of temple and shrine power which rejected the intervention of authority could not be allowed by the centralized administrative framework of recent times in which tenkabito (person becoming the ruler of the country) grasped and controlled all things.

Ikki and jizamurai
The society in the latter part of the Sengoku period suggested two opposite possibilities.
One was the centralized administrative framework in which an enormously powerful person was at the top such as Nobunaga and Hideyoshi's project to unify the country, what was called 'a vertical control.'
Another was the local government framework which eliminated the daimyo's rule such as the Kaga Ikko ikki Revolt and sokoku ikki including Kii Saiga, what was called 'a sideways solidarity.'
These conflicted with each other and Nobunaga and Hideyoshi had to suppress these sokoku ikki in order to achieve the unification of the country. The Kaga Ikko ikki Revolt was destroyed by Nobunaga, but Saiga sokoku and Negoro shu were still alive, so Hideyoshi did not hide his hostile feelings against them.

Those who were killed at the time of surrender of Ota-jo Castle were jizamurai who led ikki. The following land survey and Sword Hunt included the aims of heinobunri, that is, the separation and dissolution of kokujin and jizamurai into the warrior class who followed tenkabito as a part of the framework and the farmers who were merely ruled. The jizamurai who continued to fight were oppressed and killed without mercy. The samurai after that were not allowed to have a private relationship with the land which was given to him as chigyo-chi (territory), and sokoku ikki was never seen. Hideyoshi aimed to establish the framework that the lord he assigned directory controlled all parts of the territory and destroyed local government by people which could prevent it.

Sword Hunt
The existence of the temple and shrine powers and sokoku ikki greatly owe to their own military force. In order to dissolve these, disarmaments of temple, shrine, jizamurai and farmers were needed. While Hideyoshi executed jizamurai of the leading position at the time of the surrender of Ota-jo Castle, he allowed common farmers to leave the castle. However, he ordered disarmament of farmers at this time. This disarmament command was called the original command to collect swords as the first case of the later Sword Hunt all over the country. After that, two months later, in June 1585, the command to collect swords was announced to Kishu sokoku and Koyasan. The Koyasan Temple which was disarmed had no way to reject the intervention of authority and the neutrality and independency of temples and shrines was denied.

Then, on August 29, 1588, the command to collect swords was announced all over the country.

Ichiro KAIZU described as follows.
The battle of Ota was the climax of Japanese history in which the military force of religious common people which symbolized medieval times and the order of heinobunri in recent times confronted.'
Kishu was the birthplace of [Hideyoshi's peace], that is, the recent society of Japan and the place where the medieval times which fought against it ended.'
This was the end of the temple and shrine powers and sokoku ikki and the beginning of the recent times when overwhelming military force of samurai family unified the governance.

[Original Japanese]